The Freedom Riders caught the attention of many by refusing to follow unfair laws, and by doing so they accomplished many things that positively affected everyones rights today. The Freedom Rides were organized by CORE ( Congress of Racial Equality). In 1947 they also had what they called a Journey of Reconciliation. The Journey of reconciliation also had the same goal as the Freedom Riders which is why CORE used as a model in creating The Freedom Riders. The 1961 Freedom Rides sought to test a 1960 decision by the supreme court in Boynton v. Virginia that segregation of interstate transportation facilities, including bus terminals, was unconstitutional as well.
On May 4, 1961, a diverse group of thirteen courageous individuals known as the Freedom Riders embarked on a bus journey into the South in order to challenge segregation in bus terminals. Although many individuals believed that segregation was wrong, many southern states continued to practice racial segregation. Racial segregation is the separation of humans into racial groups in daily life. Segregation may apply to a variety of situations. Before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s laws, policies, and practices were aimed at segregating blacks.
And although segregation was outlawed, Jim Crow laws still ruled the Deep South and “codified in law, sanctioned by the courts, and enforced by the ubiquitous threat of physical violence even more than legal reprisal" (Catsam 87). The Jim Crow laws drastically affected the public transportation systems of the South. The Congress of Racial Equality challenged the unfair laws with Freedom Rides, which "arose out of the need to end segregation at lunch counters, in bus terminals, as well as in other facilities essential to the intercity traveler" (Olds 17-18). The first freedom ride commenced in Washington, DC, in 1961.Because the first Freedom Riders were from the North, they didn't realize how harsh the racist South was and “violence in Anniston and Birmingham, Alabama, would prove to be too much for the first group of freedom riders, who ended up flying from Birmingham to New Orleans. .
In September 1961, the Attorney General petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission to draft a policy making racial segregation in bus terminals illegal, and in November this was put into effect. The Freedom Riders gave national publicity to the discrimination that black Americans were forced to endure and, in doing so, helped bring about change not only in bus terminals but in the nation as a whole. One of the groundbreaking ev... ... middle of paper ... ...s Movement in America. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1986. Flynt, Wayne.
The Freedom Riders rode interstate buses into the Southern United States. The south was referred to as the most segregated part of the U.S. The main goal of the Freedom Riders was to desegregate and become “separate but equal.” They had also set out to defy the Jim Crow Laws. The Freedom Riders had a little bit of help from two court cases: Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia and Boynton v. Virginia. These court cases ruled that it was unjust to enforce segregation on buses.
Additionally, the concept of civil disobedience was advertised by King, so protesters can convey their concerns to their community and their opponents by disobeying all laws that involved segregation (Civil Disobedience, www.wikipedia.org). King similarly ensured many civil rights protesters that justice will always be by their side and that it would be justice that would help them prevail. Furthermore, he preached that peaceful resistance can unite our country for future generations, disregarding our races. These concepts of Dr. King woke many African Americans from their deep slumber and united them under the same beliefs and cause. Ultimately, the unification of the African Americans had a great impact on the outcome of the war for civil rights as well as a positive reputation for Ki... ... middle of paper ... ...roduced more conflicts between ethnic groups within and outside the U.S. that would go beyond the problem of racism.
The NAACP tried to offer a limited amount of legal help for those arrested. These events contributed to the ruling of the US Supreme Court in 1953 in Brown v. Board of Education and it eventually inspired the Freedom R... ... middle of paper ... ...he laws of segregation. The effects the Freedom Rides had on society was monumental in bringing African Americans and Caucasians closer together and strengthening their cause to end segregation. The Riders pioneered engaging in direct action for civil rights, inspiring groups of volunteers to risk their lives for a greater cause and establishing credibility across America. The volunteers were assaulted and arrested but they still rode on to their final destination.
A revolutionary by the name of Malcolm Little, later changing his name to Malcolm X, rose up and created the belief of Black Nationalism. Malcolm X believed in fighting the enemy (white people) and creating a segregated Black community through forceful measures. Dr. King however desired to bring change by peaceful protest and reached out to all races to join the battle against segregation. We can compare the lives and ideals of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and say they have the same ideas, but their methods and desires for change are much different. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X developed their positions and philosophies as a result of their personal experience in a Jim Crow nation that legalized and institutionalized discrimination.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama. The law said that black people had to sit in the back of the bus while the the white people sat in the front. Bus drivers often referred to black people on the bus as nigger, black cow, or black ape. Blacks had to pay in the front of the bus and they had to get off to go threw the side door to sit in the back. Dr. Martin Luther King jr., was born on January 15,1929 but died April 4, 1968.
Many southern states during the 1880s and 1890s passed laws which required segregation. The Supreme Court held up the southern laws in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), accepting guarantees from these states that the segregated areas would be equal. This case created the “separate but equal” doctrine and would not be challenged for some time. Some southern cities and states went on to mandated even the use of separate drinking fountains, restrooms, entrances to public buildings, and even Bibles for use in court. The south also alienated a majority of African Americans through literacy tests and poll taxes discriminating against blacks who could not pass such tests by restricting their right to vote.