What is the reason behind certain behavior of an individual? What initiates an individual to do something either that is good or bad? How do people succeed in reaching goal? These questions certainly deal with motivation as motivation provides base for a person’s action, desires and needs. Motivation encourages us to move towards certain goals that may be due to rewards, incentives, and or driving forces.
If the social conditions are worse than the individual's working conditions, then this will result in satisfaction of the individual, as the workers deem themselves relatively in good position. No meaningful relationship between the job satisfaction and age, professional experience, education level, level of wage, sex and professional group was found. On the contrary, professional experience has been claimed to increase job satisfaction.
Investigating the definition of motivation, content theories such as Maslow hierarchy of needs and Herzberg dual factor theory are the most powerful theories that describe motivation works as motivation is controlled by the desires and needs of the people. Maslow (1943) hierarchal theory of needs suggests that humans strive to reach the highest levels of their capabilities with the aim of satisfying their desires.
Narrowing pay discrepancies in a team-based environment promotes a sense of community and a common fate, leading to greater efficiency as it lessens interpersonal competition but increases collaboration (Pfeffer, 2005). Pay compression thus advocates equity theory; that if internal factors and external competitiveness are aligned, employees perceive their pay to be fair and exert maximum effort (Milkovich, Newman, Gerhart, 2011). From this perspective, compressed pay is seen as a motivational tool to incentivise workers due to the fact that there is no added value for an individualistic nature, but rather a collective tendency. Pfeffer (2005) also argues that wage compression helps to de-emphasise pay. This in turn creates employees who are not driven by pay but value organisational attributes like the people as well as having work that is exciting and rewarding to them.
As a result, he conducted interviews with multiple individuals by asking them to describe instances when they felt good or bad about their jobs. From his findings, Herzberg was able to determine that people who felt good about their jobs gave different responses from those who felt otherwise (Dartey-Baah, 2011). The conclusion he drew is that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not opposites. Factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.Remedying the causes of dissatisfaction will not create satisfaction. Nor will adding the factors of job satisfaction eliminate job dissatisfaction.
Nowadays the most of works need to motivation because this works want to get high quality .However, there are some problems which face so many people during the motivation . So there are a lot of theories appeared to help people to get the best motivation. What is the motivation .To reply this question that means you can understand the motivation also you can know how do you deal with problem motivation. There are a lot of definitions for motivation some people make briefly definition for motivation ,that is the motivation that pushes person to do some things . Moreover, there also are anther of definition ,One of these definitions define by (Robbins, 2001, p.155) he states “ motivation as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”.
For instance - if an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behavior is generating no fruitful consequence. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behavior. Implications of Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behavior. Managers who are making attempt to motivate the employees must ensure that they do not reward all employees simultaneously. They must tell the employees what they are not doing correct.
Introduction What is motivation? Definitions of motivation: "Motivation is dependent on the fulfillment of fundamental, innate psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy" (Thijs, 2011). "Motivation may be deﬁned as the degree to which individuals commit effort to achieve goals that they perceive as being meaningful and worthwhile" "Johnson, & Johnson, 2003). "Motivation is generally considered to be an internal state that initiates and maintains goal directed behavior" (Mayer, 2011) The driving force behind all the actions carried out by an individual can be otherwise defined as Motivation. The needs and desires of an individual both strongly impact and influence the direction of their behavior.
However, Maslow also suggested that satisfied needs are not motivators, as according to him, as lower-levels needs are satisfied, they no longer drive behavior, and, consequently, higher-order needs take over as the motivating force. (Udechukwu, 2009) There is nonfinancial work motivation that can be described from one of the higher-level needs, which is esteem needs. Esteem needs—the needs to be appreciated, respected, and confident—illustrates that in the world of work, there are times when employees want to be given appreciation for the results of their hard work in the company. External esteem is fulfilled by attaining the recognition of others, social and professional standing, gratitude, and appreciation. Therefore, within the workplace, workers look for a sense of community and acceptance, pursuing the consent and recognition of their fellows and overseers.
Herzberg suggest that organisations can utilise three important methods to increase the motivational factors which are job enlargement, job enrichment and job rotation. However, Herzberg's ideas are linked to job enrichment which means that pay rises will not motivate workers but an example of job enrichment is being given different tasks to complete however this questions the quality of service delivered as job enrichment can be very expensive. This theory lacks inter-relations amongst some motivators, for example, an employee may receive adequate recognition however the individual may be dissatisfied with the level of responsibility they retain. Moreover, what motivates one employee may demotivate another therefore causing the theory to hold low representativeness.