Also, research has revealed the threat of these foods. Though genetically modified foods (GM), offer convenience and low prices, they are dangerous to public health. With advancements in science, genetically modified organisms have become increasingly popular in the food market. Scientists have made “advances in cellular genetics and cell biology methods…that have contributed to the so-called green revolution that significantly increased varieties of staple food crops containing traits for higher yield and resistance to diseases and pests in a number of both developed and developing countries” (Haslberger). Since scientists have made new breakthroughs in the methods of production, these GMO’s have increased.
24) Vandana Shiva “Poverty and Globalization” Reith 2000 Lectures, BBC. 25) Bruno Sobral “The Impact of Plant Molecular Genetics” (1996) Birkhauser, Boston. 26) David Suzuki and Peter Knudtson “Genethics” (1989) Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 27) Paul Thompson “Value Judgements and Risk Comparisons. The Case of Genetically engineered Crops” (2003) Plant Physiology Vol 132 p 10-16 28) S Uzogara “The Impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review” Biotechnology Adv.
Should governments keep a control over the production of GM plants? Oxford Dictionaries defines being “genetically modified” is equivalent to containing artificially altered genetic material designed to have desirable traits. (Oxford Dictionaries, 2011). It was in 1973 that Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer co-founded the means to achieve DNA cloning and techniques to transplant genes between different biological species and genetic engineering was born (Time, 2002). It is arguable that hybrid species and selective breeding has already existed thousands of years before.
Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell. This gave birth to Genetically Modified Organism, which are organism according to Dr. Steve Windley, MD, whom structure is manipulated. Modifying these organisms could control what they react and don’t react to, such as resistance to herbicides or it could improve the nutritional content. The other effects may be growth, or a slew of a numerous effects that could go unnoticed for years The History of Genetically Modified Organism. Genetically Modified Organism was introduced to the public approximately fourteen years ago.
Genetically modified crops should be used in moderation, because they can have very negative effects on the population. There are several different ways that this trend of new and improved gene pools got their bearings but the most common theory is that “the 1980’s marked the scientific discovery that specific pieces of DNA could be transferred from one organism to another” (History of Genetically Modified Foods). This shows that the research started very long ago, and they have had a copious amount of time to perfect what they are putting into our food. “While the potential of GM crops is great, the laundry list of unknowns is troubling to many who want the process sidelined until the safety of GMOs can be concluded through research and studies. In terms of controversies, one of the greatest concerns is the long-term health affects that genetically modified foods will have on human health” (History of Genetically Modified Foods).
From1990 to 2003, scientists worldwide worked on the Human Genome project. They identified the genes that comprises human DNA. The biotechnology applies the science of production of the biological products. It uses techniques that can alter DNA in living organs.it could depend on the transfer of genes from one organ to another. When genes from humans turn back into bacteria the bacteria acts as a factory.
In recent decades, producers have been experimenting with different methods (e.g. GM, conventional, organic) to ensure staple crops (European Commission, 2010, p. 236). Explanation and Spreading of GM Food GM food is based on genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be defined as organisms in which genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. (Marie Kreipe, 2010, p. 3) As stated above, GM food is a product that has been created and modified with specific techniques by people and not naturally produced by nature, nowadays plenty country has been using this technology to modified (mostly) crops, so that crops could be resistant against pests, could stay longer, and could even eliminate some threatening pests. It’s created by injecting genes/DNA into it so it could change how does the plant normally grown into GM Plants.
This means the use of technology alters the genetic material of an organism, which would not happen from natural recombination or fertilization. GMOs products have emerged in our society in agriculture, medicine, and research since its development in the 1950s. The evolution of GMOs started in the 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick first discovered the structure of DNA in a three-dimensional double helix. Between the 1960s DNA techniques were developed that was able to synthesize and replicate genes (Kuzma, Najmaie, & Larson, 2009). In 1972, Herbt Boyer and Stanley Cohen developed genetic information with replication in species and the first recombinant DNA organism.
The founding of genetically modified organisms was extended through the course of many years. It began in 1865 when Gregor Mendel observed hereditary characteristics in pea plants. Nearly forty years later, Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky was the first person to isolate DNA, or “factors”, as Mendel defined it, in its pure state (Life Sciences Foundation, Purification of DNA). This revelation sparked the start to DNA innovations. After the discovery of DNA’s structure by Watson and Crick, scientists continued to crack the code, and DNA modification became possible when Professor Herbert Boyer created recombinant DNA (Chemical Heritage Foundation, Paul Berg, Herbert W. Boyer, and Stanley N. Cohen).
GMOs and the Environment: Scientific certainties and uncertainties. Retrieved October 3, 2004 from: http://www.nerc.ac.uk/publications/gmo/ Read, Deborah. (2000, December) Use of Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes in Genetically Modified Organisms. Retrieved October 24, 2004 from: http://www.ermanz.govt.nz/resources/Publications/pdfs/ER-GI-01-1.pdf Shelton, Anthony M. (2000, March) Bt Crops on Trial. Retrieved October 24, 2004 from: http://www.foodsafetynetwork.ca/gmo/pr-bt-crops-on-trial.htm UNFPA.