Four Major Workforce Changes

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The four major workforce changes over next five years in the workforce are as follows: gender, age, diversity, and family-focused. In addition, the public workforce transformation is a result of changes in the laws and executive orders, such as the Executive Order 10925, Executive Order 11374, Equal Opportunity laws, Execute Order 8802, and Civil Rights Act. Furthermore, the combination of legal changes and executive orders preventing discrimination based on race, gender, religion, color, and national origin in recruiting, hiring, and firing allowed for more women and other minorities to enter the public sector workforce. As a result, workforce demographics are changing and continue to change as more women, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics enter the public workforce. In 2004 the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, reported that the “federal workforce comprised of 44% women, 16.9% African American, 7.3% Hispanic, 5% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 2.1% American Indian/Alaska Natives. Additionally, the proportion of Hispanic federal workers grew by 50% and other minorities by 10% between 1994 and 2004” (Choi, 2010, p. 303). Furthermore, the workforce is aging on average, “46.3 % of all government workers are 45 years old or older and represent more than 50% of all government jobs requires specialized training, education, or job skills" (Jacobson, 2010, p. 356). As older workers retire, the traditional views and values of work changes, while the older generation focused on work-related values and career, the younger generation seek a balance between work and family. According to Harding (2000) and Hankin (2005), “younger workers seek a more spiritual workplace that emphasizes personal integrity and accountability, and less ... ... middle of paper ... ...8327959 Roberts, R. N. (2012). The deconstitutionalization of academic freedom after Garcetti v. Ceballos ? Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(1), 45-61. doi:10.1177/0734371X11421494 Selden, S. C., & Selden, F. (2001). Rethinking diversity in public organizations for the 21st century : Moving toward a multicultural model. Administration & Society, 33(3), 303-329. doi:10.1177/00953990122019785 Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Ehrhart, K. H., & Singh, G. (2011). Inclusion and diversity in work groups: A review and model for future research. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1262-1289. doi:10.1177/0149206310385943 Slack, J. D. (1997). From affirmative action to full spectrum diversity in the American workplace : Shifting the organizational paradigm. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 17(4), 75-87. doi:10.1177/0734371X9701700407
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