Foundations of Psychology

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When psychology first emerged as a science, the process of explaining the human mind and human behavior began. In this essay we will present a brief synopsis of what psychology is and introduce the reader to the primary biological foundations of psychology that are linked to behavior as well as introducing the reader to the major schools of thought in psychology. In Kowalski and Westen Fifth Edition of Psychology, psychology is define as “the scientific investigation of mental processes such as; thinking, remembering, feeling, and behavior. Understanding a person requires attention to the individual’s biology, psychological experience, and cultural context.”(Kowalski & Weston, 2009, p. 4). Each component is necessary in formulating who the individual is. As we delve into history, we must be cautious in our analyzation of human behavior and the human mind that we do not contribute our analyzation to a single thought or process as many times it may be a conglomeration of events or items that contribute to the overall picture of a person’s psychological process. Furthermore, Kowalski specifies in his writing that “humans are complex creatures whose psychological experience lies at the intersection of biology and culture.”(Kowalski & Weston, 2009, p. 3). He expounds upon this fact by stating that “all psychological processes occur through the interaction of cells in the nervous system and all human action occurs in the context of cultural beliefs and values that render it meaningful.” (Kowalski & Weston, 2009, p. 3).

The primary biological foundation of psychology is linked to biopsychology. Biopsychology is an extension of psychology that analyzes our brains and the neurotransmitter that are prevalent in our nervous system...

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... internalized. Sigmund Freud three elements of id, ego and superego when implemented together explained human behavior even in the most complex form.

Psychology has many roles in the greater realm of science, but I will always believe that the most profound role of psychology is to enable humans to have a better understanding of their self and their world. Psychology delves into the deeper levels of the mind and intrigues us with the various theories and observations of our mental and physical capacities and although there are many schools of thought, each school of thought opens our mind to new theories and concepts that stretch our brains to boundaries unlimited!

Works Cited

Kowalski, R. & Westen, D. (2009). Psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Functional Psychology. (2011). Retrieved from