Forest Biodiversity Loss

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1. Introduction
In many communities worldwide, people depend on forests, for fuel wood-gathering, harvesting of wood and non-wood forest products, for larger-scale commercial purposes, habitat for more than half the world’s terrestrial species, clean water, and other important ecosystem services (De Groot et al., 2002, Santangeli et al., 2013, Chhatre and Agrawal, 2009). However, the forest biodiversity is continuously undergoing loss which directly or indirectly contributes to forest ecosystems being transformed and in some cases irreversibly degraded. A large number of species have gone extinction or have been threatened to extinctions and reduction in population (Morris, 2010, Kuussaari et al., 2009). The main causes of biodiversity lose are a complex combination of social, economic and natural process, which includes continued growth of human population and per capita consumption, climate change, ocean acidification and other anthropogenic environmental impacts (Butchart et al., 2010, Geist and Lambin, 2002). Currently, the changes in forest biodiversity are more drastic than at any time in human history.
The different conservation programs for the management of biodiversity loss in the present days have been or are often being tracked from discipline-bound approaches, a solution which is problematic or with little success (Sunderland et al., 2009). One of the reasons for little success is, it ignores the complexity of the challenge being addressed (Moslemi et al., 2009) and the views of the different stakeholders about the forest resource. Therefore, the sustainable management of forest biodiversity loss needs interdisciplinary approaches that creates theoretical, conceptual and methodological ways that focus on and blendi...

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