A systemic crisis is a crisis in which the breadth of impact reaches many individuals within the system; for example, schools, businesses, entire communities, regions, or it may be worldwide. The individuals involved in a systemic crisis can become overwhelmed with the enormity of the situation and need physical and/or psychological assistance to regain control. Systemic crisis interventions require a combination of strategies working cooperatively together across multiple agencies to effectively address all potential needs of the victims. However, not all systemic crises are the same and require interventions that are specific to the systemic crisis category. The following paragraphs will give a brief description of a natural disaster
The United States faced one of its worst recessions in history during the latter half of the first decade of the twenty first century. Termed as the Great Recession, this period rivaled the Great Depression of the 1930s and had such an impact on the entire world that international economies were severely affected, and several national governments had to work together to get their countries out of the crisis. The crisis initially began as a decline in the financial sector, but quickly spread over to other sectors as well, thereby impacting the entire economy of the United States. In this case study, I shall attempt to explain some of the factors that played a role in this crisis.
Subprime crisis, also regularly known as the mortgage meltdown is a financial crisis that occurred between the years 2008 to 2009. It is a result of excessive borrowing to numerous homebuyers who have poor credit scores. This act of lending is called subprime lending. During this period, loads of homebuyers defaulted on their monthly payments as their interest rates increased with time. With that, there was a sharp upsurge in mortgage foreclosures. This led to the numerous failures in participating financial institutions that act as subprime or mortgage lenders. As if this was not crucial enough, all this also took a toll on investors who have played a role in facilitating subprime lending to the borrowers by buying mortgage-backed bonds. Although it has only brought visible attention in the year 2008, it started with HSBC who announced that they would be putting aside US$11 billion to cover costs due to rising losses and defaults in subprime mortgages in February 2007. Since then, major losses started to hit other financial institutions and the mortgage market started to collapse. The subprime crisis was caused by a few major factors and it involved several major parties in the US.
Although there has not been a consensus on an exact causation —due to its global nature—there has been unanimity on a number of factors. As in the case of its sister crisis (the Great Depression), many scholars acknowledge that before this cataclysm struck, the preceding economy did in fact experience a “boom” period. Most critics are also in accordance that the trigger of this crisis had to involve the subprime mortgage bubble—which collapsed in the United States—however, that alone could not represent the exact causality of this crisis. Just as in the Great Depression, there were a variety of contributing factors that resulted in this financial catastrophe.
Although the crisis came to head in 2008, there were people who had realized that trouble was coming for years. The largest warning sign was the amount of credit in the market place. Many of the big companies and banks had very little capital, and the lack of capital was brought on by the housing bubble. Companies were lending too much money to people who could not pay them back. And even before people started to default on their mortgages, people could see that this was a problem. During a meeting with the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs in January 2007 the staff of the Federal Reserve admitted “that they were aware of [the] problem in the housing issue three years earlier” (Dodd). And they were not the only ones. As far back as 2001 there were people who saw the danger that sub-prime mortgages were and who were trying to have bills passed to stop the bad lending that was going on, but no one wanted to list...
According to the reading known as ‘The Anatomy of a Murder: Who Killed America’s Economy’, the author states that there are a variety of causations which influenced and provided an impact through the US financial system. For instance, the banks, the investors, the credit rating agencies, the regulators, the mortgage brokers, and the politicians are explained in his article. Moreover, the author mentions that there are some significant factors such as the financial regulations and political systems which relate with the financial crisis.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics characterizes a recession as a general slowdown in economic activity, a downturn in the business cycle, and a reduction in the amount of goods and services produced and sold. But what usually causes this slowdown to begin with? Each recession has its own specific causes, but all of them are usually preceded by a period of irrational exuberance which is part of the expansion phase of the business cycle. The most recent one, which officially lasted from December 2007 to June 2009, produced the greatest US labor-market meltdown since the Great Depression. This Great Recession began with the bursting of an 8 trillion dollar housing bubble. Irrational exuberance in the housing market led many people to buy houses they couldn’t afford because the thought was that housing prices could only go up. The bubble burst in 2006 as housing prices started to decline, threw many homeowners off guard, who had taken loans with little money down. When the realization set in that they would lose money by selling the house for less than their mortgage, they foreclosed. This triggered an enormous foreclosure rate which caused many banks and hedge funds to panic after realizing the looming huge losses due to the buying of mortgage-backed securities on the secondary market. By August 2007, banks were afraid to lend to one another because they did not want these toxic loans as collateral. This led to the $700 billion bailout, and bankruptcies or government nationalization of Bear Stearns, AIG, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, IndyMac Bank, and Washington Mutual. Consumer spending experienced sharp cutbacks due to the resulting loss of wealth. The combination of this along with the financial market chaos elicited by the bursting of th...
The financial crisis of 2007 should be referred to as the credit crisis of the century. Despite what many Americans may believe, the financial crisis was a worldwide fiasco that affected everyone. There is no one to particularly blame for the financial crisis of 2007, but the understanding of subprime mortgages, collateralized debt obligations, credit default swipes, and frozen markets can explain the economic devastation that is still felt today.
There are a vast amount of listed causes that lead to the 2008 economic collapse, but only a few really dealt the damage. The problems arrived over a period of time from 1995 to 2008. The first and main problems that lead to the economic collapse was sub prime mortgages. Sub prime mortgage is a certain kind of loan granted to people with poor credit histories, who which wouldn’t usually be qualified for conventional mortgages (Investopedia). These sup prime mortgages would backfire on banks across the nation resulting in huge financial loses. According to USA Today, “Housing crisis deepens. Banks and hedge funds that invested big in sub prime mortgages are left with worthless assets as foreclosures rise. The damage reaches the top echelo...
The warrant for the financial crisis of 2007 was motivated by the subprime mortgage crisis. There was an increase in subprime lending which started in the early 1990’s and by 2007 all these loans totaled 1.3 trillion dollars which accounted for 20 to 25 percent of the u.s. .Housing market. During 2007 approximately around 6 million home owners could not meet there loan obligations. Borrowers took out loans that had a adjustable rate mortgage conjecturing they would buy a home with all debt financing then sell it in a couple of years assuming the housing prices would spiral up.The banks financed these loans using CDO’S and morgatge backed securities then selling these assets to other financial intermediaries letting the banks be the conciliator of these risky loans packaged into credit instruments.All though these loans were given out to grow and boost the economy it did the inverse.
In 2008 the global economy experienced its worst economic turmoil in 2008 since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The effects of the crisis started to show in mid 2007 and by September 2008, the situation was out of hand. The world stock market had plummeted, huge financial institutions had collapsed and the government in the developed economies had put in place measures to rescue their economies from disintegrating. The first clear indicator of the crisis was in 2007 when the high prices of homes in the United States nose-dived and there were massive defaults on mortgages. The US financial sector soon started trembling and before long the world’s financial markets were in tatters. The US financial sector was the main casualty and the effects were felt by many businesses and people that rely on credit. The auto industry was on its knees with a number of players in the industry filing for bankruptcy; indeed, they only stayed afloat through government bailouts. Indeed, every sector of the global economy felt the stinging impact of the crisis with the US bearing the blunt effects.
First, when the stock market crashed banks began to shut down causing havoc because people were not able to make transactions. (Could not deposit or withdraw money.) Since people were not able to access their money people were beginning to get frightened on the possibility of not being able to pay their bills, or be able to provide enough to maintain food on the table for their families.
The recession officially began when the 8 trillion dollar housing bubble burst. (State of Working America, 2012) Prior to that, institutions bundled mortgage debt into derivatives that were sold to financial investors. Derivatives were initially intended to manage risk and to protect against the downside, but the investors used them to take on more risk to maximize their profits and returns. (Zucchi, 2010). The investors bought insurance against losses that might arise from securities so that they could secure their money. Mortgage defaults unexpectedly skyrocketed, which caused securitization and the insurance structure to collapse. (McConnell, Brue, Flynn, 2012). The moral hazard problem arose. The large firm investors thought they were too big for the government to allow them to fail. They had the incentive to make even more risky investment.