On the contrary, writings ... ... middle of paper ... ...een altered since then. In conclusion, the advancement of these three philosophies from the theological Puritan views to the great scientific and reason ideals of the Enlightenment showed how a reform of beliefs and ideas resulted in the progressively modern ethics that our society is based on today. Scientific reasoning of the world ignited ideas that the ignorant society of the Puritans was immensely closed-minded about. These ideas gave way to how we explain how things happen through the use of science and reasoning. Though Puritans saw that this great reform was a blasphemy against God, the Enlightenment expanded different beliefs of religion which furthered societies intellect and understanding of religion.
If all religions are designed to be a delivery system for dogmatic practices, then how is there true freedom, true free will to believe in one religion over another? Dr. Ronald Schechter of the College of William and Mary, an editor and translator of Nathan the Wise, wrote an introduction to the book in which he explains how Lessing “used the plurality of religious faiths to plant the seeds of doubt in the minds of readers about the superiority of Christianity” (Schechter 12), which is one of the primary reason this book was so contested in Germany. The concept of religious equality was important to Lessing, and so he created his characters to be religiously diverse and respectful of other religious cultures. Schechter compares Lessing’s work with those of other Enlightenment writers like Montesquieu and Voltaire, who Lessing claimed preached the equality of religions, but when it came to their writings, practiced another claim. Although he shared their ideals that religions should be written as equal, Lessing took it a step further and within his writing of Nathan the Wise actually invited “readers to doubt the superiority of their religion, [and] he showed considerably more respect for all three religions than Enlightenment writers typically did” (14).
After reading from philosophers and scientists, it is easy to see why religion is being phased out of societies. According to the Webster Dictionary, secularization is the act of taking religion out of (something). While religion is still a big part in some people’s lives, and to many communities it is a central idea, there seems to be a clear argument to secularize more advanced societies. Before the idea of secularization was introduced, people turned to religion for all of their answers. Instead of looking for a more worldly explanation to life’s questions, people would result to religion.
It has been surmised that without the conviction that a powerful, benevolent being is offering protection, people would find life unbearable. Interestingly, Freud connects this strong desire for protection to a child’s vulnerability and dependence, calling this concept the father-complex. He uses psychological analysis and reasoning to explain a knowledgeable and very believable reason for why religion was created in the first place. Religion was structured in response to adults “longing for a father... and their ... ... middle of paper ... ...restricting ones beliefs and refusing rational ideas, religion cripples a person’s ability to reason and limits their minds strength. It is science and rationalizing that leads to a growth in intellect and with that comes greater opportunity for power and success.
Stark and Bainbridge also said that religion was a ‘compensator’ which offers a ‘plausibility structure’ for socially destructive circumstances. (E.g. bereavement) Parsons argued that religion is used to promote value consensus in America. He also agreed with Malinowski saying religion alleviates tension and frustration. Berger, who looked at the idea of phenomenology, claimed that religion works as a sacred canopy, and concentrates on the individual.
God exists. Although this opinion remains debatable to say the least, Dostoevsky needed to show that he thought of it as an absolute fact. Dostoevsky had converted from atheism before writing Crime and Punishment. While his previous work had shown Dostoevsky as a believer in the new philosophies of the time, Crime and Punishment has various religious influences and takes a stand against these philosophies, such as Nihilism. These religious influences show up often in Crime and Punishment in the form of inexplicable occurrences that stand out from the realistic aspects of the book.
In looking into the past with the use of genealogy, Asad comes to resemble Max Weber’s very own focus on the internal development of ideas that trigger social change. With the use of the genealogical method, Asad discovers that terms such as myth and sacred are not only terms that find themselves intertwined in our understanding of the developments of religion but also terms that constitute the “secular” and come to shape the political doctrine of secularism. Asad reveals that the definition of the term mythos held by poets came to be opposed by Sophists, who consequently generated a new understanding of the “supernatural” and “natural” world. Asad explains that poets once used mythos— meaning an inspiration from the gods— to authorize their speech, Sophists opposed this godly authorization (27). Sophists countered the poets by stating that speech did not originate from a “supernatural” world but instead from humans who lived “in this world” (Asad 27).
Hence, religion can be described as that perspective which originates in an attempt to represent and order beliefs, feelings, imaginations and actions that arise from the stimulation of direct experiences of the sacred and the spiritual. As this opens up and expands it becomes a process that creates meaning upon itself on sustenance from two angles points of view; originating experiences and continuing responses. This paper analyses some of the positive and negative attributions about religion in the society. It encompasses some of t... ... middle of paper ... ...d Edgell, Penny. Religion and Family in a Changing Society.
In this essay I will consider Stewart Guthrie 's paper Spiritual Beings: A Darwinian Cognitive Account. The purpose of this essay is to outline Guthrie 's argument about where animism comes from, and where it fits into religion. I will explain his argument as to why gods and spirits are often depicted as invisible and/or intangible, despite being anthropomorphisms. I will argue that although his argument is compelling it presents two weaknesses. Firstly, the resultant definition of religion seem restrictive.
The sociological approach looks at religious belief and practice in relation to the society. Sociologists are interested in two themes, the centrality of religion in society and the diversity of forms it inhabits (Hamilton 1995/2001:1). It regards religion as a social fact subject to empirical observation, which produces empirical evidence (Dillon 2003:7). The sociology of religion is a product of the enlightenment, from which it inherited a tendency to dismiss religion as incompatible with rationality (Dillon 2003:6). This dismissal has had significant impact on the attitude towards religion and it is the basis for the most influential paradigm in the history of the field; secularisation.