Female criminality

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The rise of female offending can be seen in various countries, but the reasons in the rising trends vary by continents. It was reported across various jurisdictions that, the rise of female offenders is particularly prominent in the U.S and Europe (Mclvor & Burman, 2011). Between the years of 1986 to 1995, women who are sentenced to imprisonment for drug offenses increased by 888%, this is particularly seen in states which uses severe penalties for drug offenses and among black women. Spain and Brazil were reported to have a high rising rate of female prisoner among other European countries; which were mostly incarcerated for substance abuse and between the periods of 1988 to 1998, the female imprisonment population was also increased by 291% (Mclvor & Burman, 2011). It was suggested that, factor which promoted the rise could be due to the lack of alternatives in punishment than imprisonment (Fair, 2009).
In England and Wales, the prison statistic as of 2013 also showed a constant rise in female offending from year 1995 to 2005, especially in the category of violence against the other person (VATP). As of June 2013, it was reported that 4.6 % of the prisoner population were women and 28% of the population in prison do fall under the age of 30 to 39 (Berman & Dar, 2011: 7-9). Likewise for Scotland, the increase of female offenders was also being observed, it was reported to have increased by 66% from the year 2002/3 to 20011/12 (Berman & Dar, 2011: 13) with particularly in the category of alcohol and drug offenses, shoplifting, assaults and breach of the peace. According to the data provided by the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service (COPFS), more women in thei...

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...e and hence needed to be treated with leniency, but the fact that most women have children responsibilities; where the attachment need of mothers of a child is irreplaceable, there are also various links to which children without proper mother care and touch can have undesirable results in the progress of growing up. The vast individual differences in men and women are evident in the need of having a different set of approach in female offending interventions, but most of the primary causes of their offending are nevertheless similar – victimisation and trauma. It should be recognised that female offenders are likely to require more support after their release from incarceration or other custodial sentences. Without these supports, these female offenders may not be successful at breaking their cycles and also enable to avoid passing their legacy to their children.
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