Pedogenesis in Western Washington and Northern Alaska: A Comparison of the Primary Factors Introduction: Pedology is partially based on the established principle that soil changes are directly correlated to specific biotic communities and regional climatic patterns. From this principle questions have arisen as to why the Arctic tundra that lies above the treeline in Alaska displays similar chemical characteristics to that of the well-developed Podzols and Spodosols found in the coniferous forests of Washington. The Podzols and Spodsols of these coniferous forests are defined by their cool and humid regional climates and by the acidic parent material from which they formed. Recent studies indicate that the E and Bs horizons that define the temperate forest soils are also found above the treeline in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia (Ugolini, Stoner, & Marret, 1987). What role does biota play in the current soil formation for each of the sites?
What is ocean fertilization? Ocean fertilization is characterized as a way to use to ocean as a carbon sink through the introduction of iron to the water, theoretically reducing the release of carbon into the atmosphere and therefore reducing global warming. This theory of iron fertilization has been around since the 1920’s and was made popular by John Martin of WHOI in the 1980’s. Martin proposed two hypotheses with the first being that high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) areas are that way due to inefficient amounts of iron concentrations. His second hypothesis was that if iron did direct the yield in high nutrient, low chlorophyll waters and also absorb organic carbon into the depths of the ocean through the use of the biological pump then this could explain the observations made through ice cores he had collected.
The additional presence of CO2 is expected to increase plant biomass (Brouder and Volenec 2008). The interactive factors of Temperature, soil nutrients, CO2 availability and precipitation are the key factors for the growth of plants (Post and Perdersen 2008). The arctic is an excellent environment to carry out experimental studies on plants because of notable changes that can be noticed in plant structure or mass because of a change in temperature (Mcguire et al. 2009). There is a wide consensus among a number of scientists working in the arctic t... ... middle of paper ... ...amics of marginal steppic vegetation over a 26-year period of substantial environmental change.
Scharpenseel ed., Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc., New York Tate, K.R. 1992 "Assessment, based on a climosequence of soils in tussock grasslands, of soil carbon storage and release in response to global warming" Journal of Soil Science 43: 697-707 Varallyay, G.Y. 1990 "Influence of climate change on soil moisture regime, texture, structure and erosion" in Developments in Soil Science, volume 20: Soils on a Warmer Earth pp 39-51; H.W. Scharpenseel ed., Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc., New York.
This then is a demand for global consensus. Sommer (2010) found evidence that pointed out a global increase of 0.6oC in temperature. This paper aims to discuss the implications of climate change that are already visible and the anticipated implications on conservation and reserve design. The paper will point out the species and habitats that will be affected and how they can be protected by altering reserve design. Climate change is the alternate warming or cooling of the climate of the earth’s surface.
However, tropical rainforests offer a solution to increasing greenhouse gases by acting as carbon sinks and sequesters, cycling and storing carbon dioxide in its vegetation and soil. Peo... ... middle of paper ... ...ion with biodiversity conservation. Global Change Biology, 20: 183–191. 2014. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12353 Malhi, Yadvinder. The carbon balance of tropical forest regions, 1990-2005.
Knowles and R. Moore. "The influence of water table levels on methane and carbon dioxide levels from peatland soils." Canadian Journal of Soil Science 69; 1 (1989), 33-38. Woodwell, George M. "Biotic feedbacks from the warming of the earth." Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System.
Ecology of gardeners. New York, NY: Timber press. Vitousek, P. M. et al, (1997). Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Acological Applications, 7, 737-750.
Now, for the first time, humanity has the power to change the global climate. By releasing the huge amounts of carbon stored in fossil fuels over millions of years, we are distorting the natural carbon cycle. We are intensifying the natural greenhouse effect and turning it into a 'planetary menace' when it actually makes human life possible. Thus, the German climatologist Wilfred Bach writes, 'The carbon-dioxide problem becomes a central question for the co-existence of humans and the survival of mankind.' If we do not deal with our problems now, such as global warming, the consequences will amplify and the consequences could mean our health, our life, our future.
Tarnocai, C. The effect of climate change on carbon in Canadian peatlands. Global and Planetary Change, 2006, 53:222-232. Wayburn, L.A., F.J. Franklin, J.C. Gordon, C.S. Blinkey, D.J. Mlandenoff, and N.L.