Faecalis Essay

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Enterococcus faecalis is a genus of gram positive cocci and form short chains or are arranged in pairs. They are nonmotile, facultative anaerobic organisms and can survive in harsh conditions in nature. There are over 15 species of the Enterococcus genus but about 90% of clinical isolates are E. faecalis. E. faecalis is a nosocomial pathogen because it is commonly found in the hospital environment and can cause life-threatening infections in humans. It is a bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tract in humans and animals but when found in other body locations it can cause serious infections. The most common sites for E. faecalis infections are the heart, bloodstream, urinary tract, and skin wounds. Due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, many antibiotics have been shown ineffective in the treatment. In this paper, I will describe the ecology and pathology of E. faecalis; the antibacterial resistance; treatment; and, what you can do to prevent Enterococcus infection. Enterococci are normally found inhabiting the large bowls of humans but are also a part of the intestinal micro flora in mammals and birds. Enterococci are also found in soil, plants, and water. Normally, you do not find E. faecalis in water but there are other species of Enterococci that have been found in water due to contamination. Often from feces. E. faecalis is considered an assorted species because it mingles with many different organisms and has an effect on the environment. Some of the ways that E. faecalis can be transmitted in the environment are by various insects and animals. House flies are a good example of how the bacterium is transmitted because where they live there are live microbial communities present. Normally they are found around... ... middle of paper ... ...d rectal thermometers and transmission by hands after touching IV or urinary catheters. Enterococci can be intrinsic and can tolerate or resist beta-lactam antibiotics due to containing penicillin-binding proteins. That means they are still able to combine cell wall components. There can be acquired resistance of Enterococci that comprises of resistance to penicillin by beta-lactamases, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, rifampin, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and vancomycin. There is a potential for cell-wall synthesis because the genes that encrypt intrinsic or acquired vancomycin resistance produce in a peptide to which vancomycin cannot connect. Unfortunately, due to the resistance of penicillin, Enterococci can be inhibited but cannot be killed. Health care professionals are left with limited therapeutic therapy that can be effective in the treatment of VRE.

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