Hate Crimes and The Mitchell v. Wisconsin Decision The American Heritage Dictionary defines hate as intense dislike or animosity. However, defining hate as the basis for a crime is not as easy without possibly jeopardizing constitutional rights in the process. Hate crime laws generally add enhanced punishments to existing statues. A hate crime law seeks to treat a crime, if it can be demonstrated that the offense was a hate crime differently from the way it would be treated under ordinary criminal law. Since the 1980s, the problem of hate crimes has attracted increasing research attention, especially from criminologists and law enforcement personnel who have focused primarily on documenting the prevalence of the problem and formulation criminal justice responses to it.
Evaluating and Refining Solutions: Hate crimes can be described as criminal activities that are perceived to be fueled by prejudice against and hostility towards the victim based on an individual characteristic. In most cases, hate crimes are motivated by gender, disability, sexual orientation, race, identity, and religion or faith. The increase in hate crimes in the recent past has not only made it a major issue that needs to be addressed in the modern society but has also attracted several legislative measures to deal with it. However, dealing with this major societal issue not only requires these legislative measures but also necessitate creative and critical thinking to enhance the effectiveness of initiatives taken to address it. The development of suitable initiatives through creative and critical thinking requires evaluating and refining resolutions.
The most recent legislation has been directed specifically to acts of hate against people of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, etc. The Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act, S. 625, also known as the Hate Crime Prevention Act, if enacted would strengthen current law as it relates to hate crimes motivated by a victim’s race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, disability, etc. Hate crimes are not only destructive to the victims and their families, but damaging to the victims families and friends. It also is very damaging to our American ideals. America stands and shines for diversity and equality.
People will be upset with ruling and yes, our system isn’t perfect, but like stated above, we have one of the best systems in the world. This studying of crime using different theories has helped us explain the why factor of crime. We always don’t know why people create crime but these theories can show us why popular crimes such as violent, property and victimless crimes may occur. Domestic Terrorism in the United States has been prevalent throughout this country’s existence. The term Domestic Terrorism is defined as “…the unlawful use of force or violence, com... ... middle of paper ... ... examined could have had many theories attached to them.
Richard Rubenstein says, “Foreign oppression may generate anger, but native complicity generates shame – and at a certain point, a sense of shame demands purifying action" (Rubenstein, 2002). Middle Eastern countries have been facing tremendous conflict because of dictatorship, and unequal distribution of wealth. People have an interest to have their rights, liberty, and economic freedom, and fighting with their regime (government); however, different types of interest groups (national/international) are playing a role for psychological fueling upon general people, creating more tension, aggression and arise the conflict. Increasing aggression lead to the terrorism act, where youths are joining ISIS and other terrorist organization. The young generation does not have reliable source to live a decent life.
Hitler's main idea was to as he called it 'cleanse' Europe of these non- deserving people. Hitler despite having gained anti-Semitic views on his own from things he saw he also was influenced a lot by Neil Darwin. He based a lot of his racial arguments and views on this. However another point to consider was that the Jews were being used as scapegoats for German problems. The Germans believed that the Jews were attempting to destroy t... ... middle of paper ... ...y.
Racial profiling has been a common controversy between law enforcement and communities, specifically those of a minority population. This activity has been ultimately allowed by federal and state governments as they benefit from the aid in pinpointing or otherwise targeting criminals or illegal aliens. Furthermore, racial profiling has become more of a commonly encountered practice especially after the September 11 attacks. Racial profiling is not a new activity but is now more widely seen on the streets and in social media which in turn has caused a negative impact on law enforcement and social unrest among minorities. In fact, "Carter indicates that the debate involving racial and ethnic profiling following the terroristic attacks opened the doors for the federal government to conduct more extensive routine enforcement and investigations which will probably get out of hand" .
In order to answer the above question, it must be understood what is meant by the term ‘the race-crime debate’. Bowling and Philips (2002) found the ‘race and crime’ debate has largely been detached from discussion of ethnic differences in the extent and nature of victimisation and how patterns of offending and victimisation interrelate. Bowling and Philips (2002) found that until recently the ‘race and crime’ debate had been preoccupied with other issues. The first being a question to whether people from ethnic minority groups are ‘more likely to commit criminal offences’, contrary to those from the majority of the white population. ‘This debate has turned on an analysis of ‘official’ crime statistics, especially arrest and prison data – that show marked variation for different ethnic groups’ (Bowling and Philips 2002, P76) Where elevated rates of official offending are identified.
According to Petrosino (2003: 10) hate crimes can be defined as "..the victimisation of minorities due to their racial or ethnic identity by members of the majority. " (p. 4) Hate crimes are also known as bias-motivated crimes because the crimes are motivated by a bias towards a person or persons including but not limited to those of a different gender, ethnic background, religion, or sexual orientation. Hate crimes are quite serious and have severe and long lasting-effects for the targeted victims. Due to the severe nature of the crimes many countries have strict laws in place to punish offenders. Hate crime is not widely discussed in Canadian society because it has not been a prominent issue until now.
The histories of race and crime show that the idea of ‘the racial other’ has been central to European thinking in the modern period. From long ago, certain groups were describe as having a specific set of physiological and character logical attributes which attach to their skin. Those been given as ‘black’, have been attributed characteristics as stupid, lazy and violence; others given as ‘As... ... middle of paper ... ...ice system may worsen this problem through discrimination at all stage of process, as there are research still shows that African-Caribbean people are still be easily to attract attention from the police as suspects (Home Office. 2006), which somehow with reasons which leads to majority of minority ethnic group will still have big disadvantages compared to the ‘white’. However, there is no doubt that there have been improvements during the period, is that the understanding of race issues and the importance of preventing discrimination has become more familiar by the criminal justice system.