In the "Cultural Implication for Translation" by Kate James, the author describes how translation is an activity which deals with at least two cultures, which makes translators face the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects of a source text and how successfully conveying these aspects in the target text. These problems vary according to how big the difference between the two languages is. Also, the aims of the source text will have implications for translation as well as the readers of both source text and target text. Culture is important in translation. The difference between cultures may cause more severe complications for the translator than the difference in languages.
Furthermore, culture can have an effect on individual’s values, perceptions, human behavior, and interpersonal relations. Culture includes traditions, lifestyle, specific religions, language, and etc. Individuals are susceptible to adopt a way of life that leads to misconception. As different cultures come together new perspectives are recognized and utilized. It can cause individuals to react in positive of negative ways.
Many texts show evidence of this. In fact, some texts actively criticise those, who less than ethically utilise their mastery of discourses to achieve their own ends. The media actively utilise their understanding of the dominant discourse to support many agendas. Novelists over the years have shown the ill-effects on individuals who might suffer through not mastering the dominant discourse. Those who know how to use a variety of discourses will become more powerful.
During this period, intellectuals tended to have different ideas in strengthening China since it was resulted from their link with the tradition idea of Confucianism, the degree of them being influenced by western knowledge and the pressure exerted to them by foreign powers. But, all their ideas were aiming at achieving Â‘fu chiangÂ’ (wealth and power) of China. In the 1860s, conservative ideas might be represented by Wo-jen (å€ä»), a grand secretary of Qing court and a neo-Confucian scholar. He insisted on restoring the traditional order of Chinese society according to the Confucian teaching. He stated that the only thing China could rely upon to restore its strength was the maintenance of Chinese scholars who were able to develop into Confucian principles by means of which they might keep the minds of the people quiet and harmonious.
We in the west take for granted things like the freedoms of speech, press and association and struggle to comprehend the fact that people are literally dying to gain the same rights. China is a country that, historically, has had a different viewpoint on human rights. This stems back to Confucian days but also includes the Marxist idea that the collective wellbeing is considered vastly superior to the individual. As a result, it is little wonder that when the west and countries like China open up a human rights dialogue, confrontations are inevitable. Human rights in China had its origins at about the same time that the Ching dynasty collapsed and again in 1911 as part of Sun Yet Sing’s program.
Because of this, and many other highly regarded qualities, China has made the Peking opera its “national opera” (Wertz). The Beijing Opera is such an important part of Chinese culture that “Beijing Opera Month” has been declared (Wertz). Many of the classic operas from the Qing dynasty would, most likely, not be able to be performed by today’s actors. They consisted of “more than 24 acts; to rehearse them would take years and to stage them several days” (HISTORY). The epic play, Shengpingcaofa, was based on the tale, Journey to the West; is considered “one of the four great classic Chinese novels” (HISTORY).
In the 19th Century America was the first to declare the short story as a literary form. During this time the authors Edgar Allan Poe, Washington Irving, and Nathaniel Hawthorn contributed to the survival of the short story. During this timeframe realism, romanticism, and impressionism were the more common literary movements. The short story can also use many other forms and types of criticism to describe it. A few different forms are surrealism, Dadaism, Imagism, Romanticism, and many others.
Cultural differences have a significant impact on nonverbal communication as cultures differ greatly in their nonverbal interpretations and responses. Firstly, this essay will prove how kinesics can create barriers between people as types of nonverbal cues differ amongst cultures. It will then show that paralinguistics can be based on cultural expectations and this can create stereotyping in cross-cultural communication. Turning to haptics, it will then show that different perspectives on haptics can cause problems in a cross-cultural context. Finally, it will prove that because of different cultural norms, the use of proxemics can be misinterpreted, therefore proving that cultural differences have a significant impact on nonverbal communication.
Different meanings for culture, identity, and power, may exist out in the real world. The connections made in this essay may not be true to everyone because all of us have different definitions for these key terms. Such evidence in this essay leads to a conclusion of foreseeing becoming trapped between two different styles of beliefs. We saw that, two different beliefs comes from the groups that one has associated. When compared against other people these beliefs and experiences can be held responsible, cultural problems arise.
However, it can also heavily impact a person with learning disabilities by taking away their confidents. At the same time, the use of language also forms discriminations and stereotypes in society as well. Overall, language have the power influences a person’s lives, in both a positive and negative ways.