The purpose of an experiment is to systematically test and prove, or to test and disprove a hypothesis. This is accomplished by collecting evidence, observing the effect of variables, and measuring the results. An experiment is a controlled event used to objectively observe phenomena where one or more variables are used to interact with a constant variable. The researcher observes the outcome of the constant variable on the other variables. The experimenter is interested in establishing causality through isolation of the causal effects and providing evidence.
c) Identify research question and Formulate hypothesis - Ask questions about what the research is trying to depict and form a hypothesis about what you assumptions are. d) Design a method to test the hypothesis - Create a method/experiment that will test if the hypothesis is either correct or incorrect. e) Collect and analyses the idea - Gather the result of experiments and examine the results. f) Draw conclusion about if the result approves of the hypothesis - Conclude and articulate whether the hypothesis was approved by the result. g) Report result - Report the result as a scientific research.
References Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2009). Research methods in psychology (8th ed.) New York: McGraw Hill, Chapters 10-13, p.p. 306-456
In this paper, the author will delineate the characteristics between qualitative and quantitative research, as well as their methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a brief glimpse behind each research approach, by determining the strengths and weaknesses of both. The terms “subjective” and “objective” will be viewed in accordance with each research paradigm by considering the role of the observer and addressing how the researcher conducts his or her analysis using these approaches. The author will also describe the preferred approach given to each modality and how each model can be utilized in a study of aggression. Qualitative and Quantitative are two differentiated paradigms of research, which operate under the assumption that measured outcomes, must be proven valid and reliable.
Researchers, who use this approach, analyze previous theoretical claims, questioning preceding findings and conclusions. Critical Research is also referred to as the transformative paradigm. Critical paradigms are used in qualitative research methods that include interviews and group discussions; these are techniques that allow for collaboration that can be carefully deployed in a way that avoid discrimination (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006). Critical research analysis and interpretation seeks categories, patterns and themes to result in the data collection. The results are useful to identify ethical integrity and social injustices.
Define internal and external validity. Discuss the importance of each. Internal validity refers to whether the effects observed in a study are due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not some other factor. In other words there is a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable. External validity is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity.
Finally, the research hypothesis is either approved or disapproved with regards to the results of the analysis (Laureate Online Education B.V. 2010). Hypotheses differ from research questions in that, they are predictions that researchers come up with about variables and expected relationships between them (Creswell 2008). Hypotheses are mostly used in experimental exercises and are used in making comparison of groups. Hypotheses are basically formulated in two forms; null and directional hypothesis. Null hypotheses predict the lack of relationship between groups.
Quantitative and qualitative research are two methods to gather and synthesize data. When discussing these two research methods, one might ask what are the differences? If so, this paper answers the questions surrounding the differences including what the research involves. The purpose of the research can dictate which method would be the most beneficial. Qualitative research is open-ended whereas; quantitative research is more structured.
Thus, when attempts are made to classify different kinds of research studies to different design types, they are classified by the kind of research questions they are able to answer. Research designs can be mapped out to the types of research questions (research problem) using four dimensions: 1) empirical versus non-empirical dimension, 2) using primary versus using secondary data, 3) the nature of the data (numerical versus textual data) and 4) the degree of control (structured (laboratory) conditions versus natural field settings) The first dimension, which is relevant to our study, is that of empirical versus non-empirical studies. Empirical studies involve observing and measuring reality, thereby confirming knowledge through direct experience. Non-empirical (theoretical) studies involve developing and exploring theories that account for given data. The second dimension is that of the nature of data used in the study.
Research is finding out information in relation to a hypothesis a researcher has constructed in order to prove or disprove it. Research designs refer to the way in which this information is collected in order for it to be analysed, it provides a standard layout for data collection. A research design is chosen by the researcher in order to fit the criteria of the required data to satisfy their hypothesis. The two forms of research designs discussed in this essay will be Experimental and Correlational research. The purpose of experimental research is to compare situations in a controlled environment, under strict conditions in order to establish causality.