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Experiment on the Absorbtion of Long-Lived Radionuclides

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Introduction
Long-lived radionuclides in radioactive waste are intended to be serious pollutants, they migrate by groundwater and the geologic materials can affect their adsorption.
Presence of radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes is a major environmental worries. ( paper khandeh -thorium (IV)
The water pollutants by chemical substances, such as arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, cuprum, chromium and rare earth element(REEs) has been a problem during the past few years.
Because of rare earth elements (REEs) wide applications in many critical technological areas as well as nuclear fuel cycles (NFC), analytical and separation technologies for these elements are attracting more and more attentions worldwide. [1–3}( 1- 16 dey91].
Cerium is an important element in the lanthanides group and widely used in production of ductile iron, cast iron and aluminum alloys and some stainless steels [2]. Cerium due to the fact that damps and gasses can be inhaled with air. Then, this can cause lung embolisms. When it accumulates in body, it can be a menace to liver. ( 16 dey 91)
Ce(III) has similar chemical properties with radioactive elements such as Am(III) and Cm(III) [20,21 paper khande ce]. Among the conventional procedures for the treatment of heavy metal ions and nuclear waste, adsorption technique is one of the important methods and has been used extensively used becouse of its high efficiency, low cost and large compatibility. ( paper of ce 4) Some studies on adsorption of
Ce(III ) ions have been reported (15–17 paper of ce 4 ).
In the present work, in order to avoid directly radioactive damage, the adsorption of Ce( III) ions from aqueous solut ion by HESI-SBA-15 as a new adsorbent was described. Some important parameters, such as concentration, pH, contact time, dose of adsorbent were investigated and optimized by experimental design.The optimization step was done using full factorial design. The experimental design is a utile tool to recognize significant variables that affect the process and to determine optimal conditions in several processes with limited experimental runs (Amini et al., 20 09; Cruz-González et al., 2010; Freitas et al., 20 09; Gulati et al., 1999; Yus Azila et al., 20 08).( 2 desctap). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a actuarial method that widely used for experimental design that it can define the relationship between dependent (response) and independent variables as well as to optimize the related processes.
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