The core beliefs reflect the views we have of others, the future, the world, and ourselves. These core beliefs underlie automatic thoughts and usually reflect back to the intermediate belief (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2014). A client may have a positive or negative core belief, however, the negative core beliefs lead to the dysfunctional thoughts far from reality. The schema includes these core beliefs and works as a mental structure that organizes information and experiences (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2014). Schemas act as a filter as they process experiences and current info, thus shaping the client’s thinking and often time fostering cognitive errors (Knapp & Beck, 2008).
WM involves ‘the temporary storage and manipulation of information’ necessary for the operation of complex cognitive tasks (Hummel & Holyoak 2003); WM therefore is an indicator of our capacity for thinking and for language processing. The present study will be empirically examining the possible relation between WM working memory and L2 vocabulary learning to test the hypothesis that the capacity of WM is correlated with vocabulary learning rate. Background of literature A WM model first proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 consists of three basic components: the central executive, the phonological loop and the visual/ spatial sketchpad. In 2000 this model was extended with the multimodal episodic buffer. The central executive directs information to the three processes: the phonological loop, the visual/ spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.
Introduction The paper explores cross cultural ego-identity formation as it is described through Erikson’s psychosocial developmental model and Marcia’s Four Status paradigm. It also seeks to provide an overview of recent literature on the status of ego identity formation as it is represented in the changes in status of individual groups around the globe. Identity formation is viewed as a process of transactions that occur between the individual and the context in which they conduct their interpersonal transactions. The trajectory of development is determined through the way in which conflicts are resolved. According to Bosna (2001), the journey toward optimal development is characterized by an openness to change, support from elements within the environment, and the overall history of the developmental process.
As a result, by escaping the short-term memory trap, the revised knowledge can be store in our long-term memory system and we can apply the knowledge in our future learning and career. Works Cited Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. The psychology of learning and motivation, 2, 89-195. Dewar, M., Alber, J., Butler, C., Cowan, N., & Della Sala, S. (2012).
Arrington (2008) states that among many of his contributions, Piaget posited theories on cognitive development that was stage-independent and stage-dependent. The main idea of this theory is that knowledge could be inborn, learned or developed through self regulated process (Ibid, 2008). Stage-independent theory Arrington (2008) states that according to Piaget, cognitive development presents schema, structures, equilibrium and operations as the main focus in the stage-independent theory. Schema is a generalized patterns of behavior and thoughts that are meaningful to people. More than one schema or schemata are adapted repeatedly throughout the life through experiences and maturation.
Several studies have been conducted creating various methods of intervention but this method will focus on using feedback intervention, understanding cognitive, and metacognitive restructuring as affective intervention processes. Each analysis will focus on effectively developing behaviors that will aid in motivation increase over time. According to the studies of Kluger & DeNisi, (1996), feedback intervention is scantily understood but yields consistent result over the course of time. Their research has concluded that feed back intervention theory changes the main focus of attention among three general levels of control that include task-learning, task motivation, and self related processes. Feedback intervention (FI) uses positive and negative effects to promote or inhibit the behavior of the individual.
Although CBT is often referred to as a unitary treatment, it is actually a diverse collection of complex and subtle interventions that must each be mastered and understood from the social learning perspective (Reinecke, Dattilio, & Freeman, 2003). According to Graham (2005), CBT aims to change a patient’s unhealthy behaviour through examining assumptions behind the thought patterns (cognitive restruction) and also through using behaviour therapy techniques. In CBT, therapist and patient work with each other to identify the thoughts that may cause distress, and the therapist employs behavioural therapy techniques to modify the resulting behaviour. It aims to address patients’ certain fundamental core beliefs (schemas) that lead to negative influences on their behaviour and functioning (Rufer et al, 2000). CBT is the treatment option for some mental disorders, such as depression, dissociative identity disorder, eating disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, hypochondriasis, insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (Clark, 1986).
Developmental psychology emerged from the scientific study of orderly psychological changes that typically occur in a person's life from birth to old age. This branch of psychology signifies the importance of the accumulation of knowledge a person gains in response to the surrounding conditions throughout their life to expand their range of development. (Lerner, 1976) People of all ages are continuously growing and developing: physically and mentally. All things physical and mental are bridged creating a connection of correspondence, especially when the idea of development comes into play. The advancement in a persons growth is ultimately caused by the brain, which functions as the center of sensation, intellectual and nervous activity.
The other three are temperament, intelligence, and abilities. Meanwhile, in the same fields of the study of individual differences, motivation is overviewed as one of the four main branches besides abilities, personalities, and mood (Cooper, 2002; in Dörnyei, 2005). In the field of second language acquisition research which focuses on how languages are learned, Bot, Lowie, and Vespoor (2005) explain that motivation and attitude are parts of individual factors which influence the growth and loss in language learning processes and the learning outcomes. The effects of motivation and attitude as individual factors, which are studied along with type and amount of contact with the language being learnt, may explain how the individual learn the target language, including predicting the learning outcomes. Those factors are also able to be used for analyzing the role of instructors, as Christiana (2009) reported, such as teachers, tutors, and lecturers including the stakeholders, and determining how the language learning should be conducted and how individuals learning the language being learnt should be
Despite acknowledging that some of underlying mechanisms may be innate, they see lexical development as an emergent process resulting from early social interaction and exposure to linguistic input (Poveda & Vellido, 2006). The main aim of ANN is to construct computational models of various cognitive processes based on biological details of n... ... middle of paper ... ... Vellido, A. (2006). Neural network models for language acquisition: A brief survey. In Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning–IDEAL 2006 (pp.