Introduction Recently, water shortage problem becomes more and more serious in the world . The desire to make a drinking water by treating a ground water, a surface water, a sea water and so on has been increasing. An electrodialysis (ED) is one of the useful methods and has applied to make the drinking water as well as RO and NF membranes [2~5]. ED is an electrical system utilizing ion exchange membranes. Ion exchange membranes have permselectivity similar to RO and NF membranes . It is
3- The biological effects It is evident that infiltration of nutrient-rich wastewater into the soil is increasing microbial activity. When the soil layer is influenced by steady state fluid and gradually become saturated then the microbial activity is immersed under the liquid. Initially, a microorganism cell needs to attach on the solid surface in order to reduce mobilization. The immobilize matrix of microbial cells could offers a protective and nutrient rich environment for microbial growth.
resin is limited by the selectivity which is as illustrated in Table 1.1 below. A batch processing is not favoured due to the low efficiency in the regeneration process. Table 1.1: Types of Ion Exchange Resins with Decreasing Preferences. Strong Acid Cation Exchanger Strong Base Anion Exchanger Barium Iodide Lead Nitrate Calcium Bisulfite Nickel Chloride Cadmium Cyanide Copper Bicarbonate Zinc Hydroxide Magnesium Fluoride Potassium Sulfate Ammonia Sodium Hydrogen On the other hand, a column process
this study. The electrodialysis operation was carried out on a laboratory stack “PCCell ED 64 002” supplied by PCA-Polymerchemie Altmeier GmbH and PCCell GmbH, Heusweiler, Germany. As shown in Fig 3, ED cell is packed with ion exchange membranes (cation and anion), spacers and a pair of electrodes (anode and cathode). Both electrodes are made of Pt/Ir - coated Titanium. The membranes and spacers are stacked between the two electrode-end blocks. Plastic separators are placed between the membranes
Introduction: The need to irrigate with waters high in sodium and soluble salts for use in agriculture has increased due to the understandable interest many societies have placed in storing fresh water resources – especially in areas with dry and semi-dry climates (Jalali & Ranjbar, 2009). Furthermore, disposing of nutrient-rich effluents to rivers, lakes and oceans can have serious environmental impacts such as water contamination and eutrophication (Balks et al., 1998). From these concerns arises
HAEMOCHROMATOSIS DETECTION USING PCR-RFLP INTRODUCTION Hereditary Haemochromatosis (HH), first described in 1865, is a genetic disorder of metabolism, characterized by progressive iron overload resulting from abnormalities in intestinal iron absorption and or release of iron from reticuloendothelial cells . It is an autosomal recessive disorder, where the body accumulates excessive iron, which is deposited in a variety of organs. Iron cannot be excreted, thus, the excess builds to toxic levels