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The Marxist-Leninist Revolutions in Latin America was born out of a sense of nationalism by the working classes as an anecdote to the vast economic gap between the rich minority and impoverished majority (Chasteen 286). The success of the Cuban Revolution at the height of the Cold War caused intense fear of the left in the upper and middle classes, the right, and the police who feared they would lose their privileged status if the Communist Revolutionaries succeeded (Class Notes). The United States was eager to prevent another Cuba, created the Alliance for Power in 1961 and threw their support behind the right and aided in counterinsurgency campaigns and military coups to crash the left and as a result violent dictators rose to power restricting basic freedoms and committing a plethora of civil rights violations. Prior to the rise of the Conservative dictator Augusto Pinochet, Chile’s President Salvador Allende intended a peaceful socialist transition by means of the nation’s long standing electoral democracy. The goal of Allende’s Popular Unity government was a regulated revolution from above that would adhere to federal laws (3/10, 266). Allende’s policies consisted of an increase in real wages and price freezes, and also government sponsored housing, education, sanitation, healthcare, and daycare (Class Notes). However, his plan did not quite materialize as he had hoped. Allende made enemies of the elites when he passed agrarian reform legalizing land expropriations, which required a modification to the Constitution and declared any private property held at the expense of society as subject to legal government seizure and redistribution amongst those citizens stricken by poverty, thus angering hacienda owners. He also ... ... middle of paper ... ...lerance of oppositional parties but following a series of student protests decided to dissolve all activist organizations. When the social issues came to a head between Congress and Costa e Silva, the general shut down Congress, censored the press eliminated democratic rights (3/17, 329). By the end of the 1970s the “economic miracle” had become an economic disaster, national industries had been alienated, the military was incompetent and corrupt, and Brazilians were beginning to push for democracy. These dictatorships had reached their end toward the end of the 1980s. Nationalism had come to an end and only in Cuba did the Marxist Revolutionaries succeed. In order to deal with the economic crises of 1980s Latin American countries enacted Neo-Liberalist policies that would lead many to have to export their labor force to other nations, such the United States.

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