The problem of evil makes theists discern a reason for an STN God to allow evil and suffering in the world. The basic setup for the problem of evil is that either a God who is all knowing, all powerful, wholly good, eternal, and creator of this universe but separate from it (STN) or evil exists. Atheists believe that since evil exists then there is no STN God. Theists branch into two categories, either believing in God, but not an STN God or believing that God has a reason for allowing evil into the world. The latter type is a narrow theist and they use a theodicy to solve the problem of evil, the best of which is the ontological defense. However, the ontological defense does not solve the problem of evil.
The problem of evil stems from the contradicting beliefs that either an STN God exists or evil exists (93).1 The problem of evil can be expanded into two arguments against the existence of an STN God: the logical and the evidential arguments (93).1 The argument from the logical problem of evil is simple. The basic form of this argument is that if an STN God exists, then evil cannot exist (93).1 Since there is evidence that evil does exist an STN God cannot exist (93).1 The evidential problem of evil is based more on how any greater good can come from the evil (99).1 In the argument from the evidential problem of evil, there are times when an STN God could have prevented intense suffering without interfering with a greater good (99).1 An STN God would prevent any suffering that would not interfere with a greater good and since suffering has occurred that does not interfere with a greater good an STN God cannot exist (99).1
The problem of evil is solely a problem for theists. In order for a theist to keep their beliefs in an STN God they must find a way to solve the problem of evil by using a theodicy (103).1 Or they can change their beliefs so that they no longer believe in an STN God, but just a God (108).1
The ontological defense appears to be the most successful theodicy at solving the problem of evil. This defense essentially says that it is impossible for good to exist in the world without evil. The ontological defense is the strongest defense because it merely puts forth the concept of opposites and does not try to explain any other reasoning for why evil exists or why God puts evil in the world.