Heda Margolius Kovály’s memoir, “Under a Cruel Star: A Life in Prague, 1941-1968” recounts her experience of the Holocaust and the Communist Regime in Czechoslovakia, during the 20th century. In 1945, after the holocaust and after World War II, Czechoslovakia was in a period of distress, which made people seek for communism as a solution. Communism, a totalitarian regime, was a form of government in which nobody was allowed to own any private property and the government controlled all economic activity. This government structure was not only corrupt, but it also caused more economic crisis in Czechoslovakia. Despite the rough situation that Czechoslovakia was going through, none of its
"Rick Steves? Europe: Prague and the Czech Republic." Classroom Video On Demand. Films Media Group, 2002. Web. 28 May 2014.
Before the 19th century, few Czech’s immigrated to the United States. “The first major immigration wave occurred in 1848 when the Czech "Forty Eighters" fled to the United States to escape political persecution by the Habsburgs” (Molinari 498). Most Czechs immigrated to Chicago in the 1850’s, but they also immigrated to New York, Cleveland, St. Louis, and Milwaukee towards the 1870’s. Czech immigration to Chicago began in the 1850s, after the railroads had linked the city to the East Coast states Cozine. Molinari states that unlike other ethnic groups, Czech’s were more likely to make the journey to the United States with their families (499). “On arrival, many Czechs Americanized their last names” (Molinari 500).
During the communist regime in Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1989, scholars estimate that as many as 550,000 people emigrated from the country, or about 3.5 percent of the total population of the country. Some 250,000 of those émigrés left between the years 1968 and 1989. Unlike earlier waves of emigration, these Czechs, Slovaks, and a much smaller number of Carpatho-Rusyns left largely for political reasons. Some of these émigrés would play an active role in monitoring the situation of their countrymen, working to overthrow communism, and energizing their respective ethnic communities in the new host countries.
Recently in Europe and its neighboring countries, the talk has been about the newly installed euro into the ever- growing European market. The euro has been the new
The Communist world was not a united one in 1968. The Sino-Soviet split was the biggest break in the bloc, but other communist states like Yugoslavia also distanced themselves from the Soviet Union. Just because these states separated themselves from the Soviet Union, did not mean they wanted democracy or even to just be allied with the United States. They were still communist regimes, and in the case of Czechoslovakia, it was simply not reasonable to show any significant support for a country that was still technically a communist country. If the United States had intervened in Czechoslovakia, either politically or militarily, there was no guarantee that the reformists in the CPCz or in the government of Czechoslovakia would have welcomed it, even if the normal citizens of Czechoslovakia did welcome
At the early part of the 1990s, a major change in ideology was changing the face of Eastern Europe. With the collapse of the Soviet authority in 1989, many of the Eastern European countries claimed their independence, and started the process of Democratization in a Post-Communist environment. On January 1, 1993, almost three years after they claimed independence, the first Czechoslovakian constitution was ratified, thus putting the wheel of Democracy into motion. For a little more than ten years, Czechoslovakia has been fashioning itself into a more Democratized country. I am going to examine the validity of Democracy in Post-Communist Czechoslovakia. Through examining the oversight power of social institutions, the economy, national and domestic policy and government structure, I will make an overall assessment of Democracy in Czechoslovakia.
In 1989 the Velvet Revolution started the fall of Communism in Czechoslovakia. In the 28th of November the Communist party gave up power and ended it the single party government that ruled over Czechoslovakia. In 1993 the country split and the Czech Republic formed, as did Slovakia. With this new freedom and formation of a country made up of a majority of ethnic Czech people the future seemed bright. However, even thought the Czech Republic was free from communist oppression, it still faced important challenges, including forming a capitalist economy after years of dependency on the Soviet Union and trying to fix the numerous environmental problems that were caused by industrialization during communism. In this paper, I argue that despite initial economic success, the Czech Republic’s switch to a capitalist economy was unsuccessful, but that the Czech Republic was successful in reversing the environmental impacts during the communist era. My argument proceeds as follows. First, I outline the economic changes that the Czech Republic underwent from its independence in 1989 to the present, documenting its initial success and then describing what led to the economic downturn it undertook. Secondly, I describe the ecological damages that were caused by communist-enforced industrialization and what the Czech Republic underwent to reverse these damages. Finally, I conclude by summarizing the failures of the Czech Republics economy and the success of its environmental programs, and the effects that these failures and successes had on the Czech Republic’s transition into a liberal democracy.
The official Web Site of the Czech Republic, (2008), retrieved January 25, 2008 from: http://www.czech.cz/en/economy-business-science/investment-counsel/investing-in-the-czech-republic/opportunities-according-to-sectors
The causes for such a massive and all-captivating rebellion, which occurred both in Hungary (1956) and in Czechoslovakia (1968), originated most from deep-rooted antagonism towards Soviet domination in the Eastern Europe in the post-war era. A continuous political and cultural suppression by Soviet dictatorial policies, obviously linked with economic constraints, coalesced to provoke robust insurrections. Short-term reasons are of no less importance in the analysis of these events. In the case of Hungary, Khrushchev’s speech on the 20th Part Congress - which discredited Stalinist rule and encouraged a policy of diversion - played a significant role in the development of Hungarian resistance. While observing events in Czechoslovakia, the role of Dubcek’s government should be emphasized, since it was their new program, which raised a significant enthusiasm in Czechs, to aim for a neutral course.
Even before World War II, the dream of a unified Europe existed. This ideal emerged from the desire to guarantee peace, for a common political and economic system would, in theory, lower the chances of war. This is because by slowly erasing countries’ borders and making them intra-dependent, states are forced to work with each other rather than oppose one another. A unified economy would also turn Europe into one market and increase the continent’s role in the international monetary system. In March of 1979, eight countries officially participated in the European Monetary System (EMS) by pegging their currency to the German mark. By tying their monetary policy to the Bundesbank’s well known monetary targeting policy, they were able to import German credibility to reduce their own inflation. Indeed, EMS members considerably reduced their inflation by exchange-rate targeting, making Germany the anchor country. France reduced inflation from about 5% in 1987 to 2% ...
For over thirty years now a European Monetary Union has belonged to the articulated aims of the European Union. All previous attempt to establish a Monetary Union, such as the so-called “Werner- Plans” in 1979 through the European Monetary System (EMS), failed though. In 2002 the EMU finally was put into full effect. Now that the Euro- countries have experienced three years with the Euro, it is possible to make a preliminary assessment of the Euro.
Europe has a history of war and conflict that predates living memory and the idea of a united Europe is something that appears repeatedly in that history. Hitler, Napoleon, and the many Roman Emperors all sought a united Europe. Their quests although in many ways motivated by a horrifying desire for power sparked the minds of philosophers and other political thinkers to imagine Europe united in harmony and peace despite national differences. Today we have the European Union which is quite unique. After the horrors, bloodshed, and economic disaster of the twentieth century, in a desire for peace and harmony and economic and political prosperity twenty-seven states have limited their national sovereignty.2 With national interests and ambition still in mind these countries see the European Union and supranational governance and the benefits of peace and prosperity therein as something worthwhile. However, in the history of European integration there has been much conflict and Euroskepticism. Some see unity in diversity and diversity in unity as impossible, and the existence of differentiation in the EU as highly problematic. However, differentiation in the European Union’s integration process is not the hindrance it is often defined as, rather it creates further cooperation in Europe bringing the European Union closer to its objectives of peace, and economic and political growth, resulting in a more effective and efficient bureaucracy. Differentiation in the EU’s integration process has created more successful integration as it allows the nations who wish t...
...d 1950’s Czechoslovakia was considered a world power. If they had stayed as one nation there is an argument to be made that they could have been the best nation in the world when it comes to ice hockey. There have been several incredible stories to come out of Czechoslovakian ice hockey, along with several incredible players and teams along the way. The Czech hockey players definitely suffered a few bumps in the road, such as tragedy and legal issues, but they also had many positives. They expanded the game across their nation to be considered a world power at one point, and that legacy has carried over to the future. The Czech Republic and Slovakia have taken things from hockey in Czechoslovakia and expanded it to their individual nations. Overall it is pretty incredible what Czechoslovakia went through in the process of developing into a very strong hockey nation.