In the nineteenth century, Europe finally exerted dominance over Africa, after 300 years of trying to do just that. Their eventual success was mainly due to technological advancements that the Africans didn’t have at the time. The major European powers (Great Britain, Germany, Portugal, Belgium, and France) had many reasons for imperializing the African continent including: economic, political, and technological factors which all contribute to a country’s success. Some people would argue that Europeans took over Africa to improve African quality of life. However, it is clear that the main driving force behind European imperialism in Africa was the fact that Africa was rich in valuable resources. By tapping into this sort of wealth, Europeans were able to consolidate even greater power and prosperity.
Europeans were mainly driven to imperialize in Africa due to its abundant and valuable natural resources. According to the chart from Document D, many countries in Africa had many useful resources that, if exploited, would increase the wealth of Europe. For example, Rhodesia …show more content…
Imperialism, when a country takes over another colony beyond its borders, caused many positive and negative effects on Africa. Some positives include the push to end slavery, introduction to education, medicine, and technology, and improved infrastructure. Negative effects include mass deaths, robbing of raw materials, exploitation of labor, and prevention from industrializing or gaining civil service. Today, Africa is struggling as a whole due to what happened about 200 years ago. Many states are landlocked, blocked from traditional migration routes and trade routes, and contains mixed, diverse cultures. Overall, imperialism of European countries was a negative event in African history. It plays a big part in how successful and structured Africa is
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Throughout the 19th century, European Imperialism had a major effect on Africa. As countries expanded in terms of wealth, resources, and innovation, more territory and workers were needed. The first solution to solve these problems was to begin colonizing in Africa. The driving force for imperialism in Europe and Africa was mainly economical. This economical approach was established through many ways including cultural and nationalistic ideas.
Europe, in the late 1800’s, was starting for a land grab in the African continent. Around 1878, most of Africa was unexplored, but by 1914, most of Africa, with the lucky exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, was carved up between European powers. There were countless motivations that spurred the European powers to carve Africa, like economical, political, and socio–cultural, and there were countless attitudes towards this expansion into Africa, some of approval and some of condemnation.
One of the main reasons Europeans colonized Africa was for their useful resources. There are countless assets in the African landscape that were wanted by other nations. The European countries had access to some of the worlds most needed resources such as cotton, oils, coal, gold, and diamonds because they controlled Africa. This is shown on a chart of African colonies and their exports. ("Selected African Colonies and Their Exports" 269). This shows how the European countries carefully selected the land they did, to get certain resources they needed or wanted to use to benefit from. Another chart from a book by Trevor Lloyd, (Lloyd, The British Empire), displays the large jump of exports to Africa from 1854 to 1900. What that means is once Great Britain established complete control of South Saharan Africa, they began to export the resources they found that they could use. These charts are proof of how the European's wanted resources, and that is one of the main reasons for the imperialization of Africa. Not only did the European nations want the continent's resources, but they had an equal hunger for power.
When the Age of Imperialism began in 1875, it effected Africa in many ways. Nowhere was the competition for colonies more intense than in Africa. Europeans went after North and South Africa splitting up the continent. Egypt and Sudan were taken over by Britain to obtain the Suez Canal. Imperialism helped to develop Africa’s economy and turned it into a continent of colonies.
Conquest and colonization has always played a role in the history of European powers. Throughout the centuries many different European empires have attempted to make their mark on multiple different continents. Some have found success, while others have failed. One case in particular, in which European nations could not quite find stability, was in North America. Factors such as the American Revolution, U.S. westward expansion, and the Monroe Doctrine pushed European nations out of North America. Afterwards, the late 19th century marked the beginning of New Imperialism. As New Imperialism began, Africa became important to European nations in their “Scramble for Africa”.
Africa has had a long and tumultuous road of colonization and decolonization the rush to colonize Africa started in the 17th century with the discovery of the vast amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber with colonization hitting a fever pitch during World War I. However, the repercussions of colonization have left deep wounds that still remain unhealed in the 21st century. Early on, European nations such as Britain, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany and Belgium scrambled for territories. Countries wanted land so they could harvest the resources, increase trade, and gain power. The European colonization of Africa brought racism, civil unrest, and insatiable greed; all of which have had lasting impacts on Africa.
Africa is a land of riches like no other, so as expected, European countries would have some sort of desire to conquer properties in whatever way they did. As stated in African Colonies and their Exports Chart, countless of natural resources are found in different areas in Africa. Not only does the data show plenty of resources, but also a variety (Doc D). This confirms that Africa is a wealthy land that Europeans grew fond of and hoped to take over. Specified in Imports and Exports Graph, following the 1900’s, after the conference to divide up Africa was held, Britain decided to use Africa’s natural resources and specialize in many industries. The imports doubled from 4 million pounds, while the exports boosted from 2.5 million all the way to 21 million pounds (Doc. E). With this lucrative increase in trading and selling, it is fair to conclude that not only were resources a factor of beginning imperialism in Africa, but also a successful result.
A true saying is “Colonization often does more damage than contribution.” Colonialism encouraged Africa’s development in some areas, but in many others it severely damaged the natural progress of the continent. If colonialism was never imposed on Africa, Africa’s developments would be significantly different and many of the problems that the continent faces now would not exist today. In conclusion, at first it seems that colonialism has both positive and negative effects, but the truth is it only damages the colonized nation.
Throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, almost every country in Africa was imperialized by other countries in Europe. To imperialize is to conquer another country, whether it be in the means of politics, economics and/or culture, and control that land. The aftermath for the imperialized country was either beneficial or harmful. The amount of African countries that a European country imperialized varied. Great Britain imperialized fifteen countries in Africa, including Egypt in 1882, Sierra Leone in 1808, and the Union of South Africa in 1910. Although Great Britain’s reasons to imperialize were selfish, Britain helped each country progress afterwards.
Often imperialism is criticized for the exploitation of foreign markets. While it is true that this exploitation of raw materials and foreign markets had a negative impact on the native culture, especially in Africa, its impact on the world had far more positive effects. For example, in 1900 the world population was roughly 1.650 billion people. Africa made up around 8.1% of the world population, and Europe made up roughly 24.7%. Just in te...
For example, it led to the partitioning of several ethnicities across African states that were newly created, and partitioned ethnic groups suffered longer and more damaging civil wars. Some positive effects were that education in Africa improved, there was industrialization in Africa, and the enhancement of infrastructure such as sewage systems, railroads, and mail deliver. Unfortunately, the down side of it was Africa’s food and land started to become scarce, the Europeans were so fast to give them high taxes, and most importantly Africans began to felt inferior because they were brutally abused. There political systems are still held, but they were brought to the idea of a constitution and democracy. In addition, nationalism introduced social distinctions which led to racism following the brutal treatment of African laborers till this
...'s colonization play book: oppress, squash any uprising, horde capital from the rural peasantry, and refuse to contribute to social services. To be frank, Europe left Africa in a state of disarray, and the fact that they did not help them to gradual self-rule was done on purpose: to continue a state of neocolonialism. When one looks at the political, social and economic factors, it becomes obvious that the state of Africa today is due to nearly a century of direct rule. While the rest of the world experienced the Industrial Revolution, Africa is just beginning to experience the modern technologies and amenities that have been a staple of the western world for a very long time. Crippling debt, famine, and oppressive military characterizes the continent today, and as Donald Wright aptly titled his paper on postcolonial Gambia, “Independence, or In Dependance?”
The high demand for slaves by the Western countries resulted in political instability, retarded economic growth, social fragmentation; families were destroyed when their heads were captured to be sold for slavery. The end result of all these was a state stricken with poverty due lack of a majority of the working population (Blaufarb & Clarke 34). The abduction of Africans for slavery purposes had an impact of depleting the population, thus economic underdevelopment. The trade naturally caused impoverishment of African states, thus a continued dependency of Africa on the European powers for grants and other financial aids. This unequal treatment of Africans, leading to capitalism and enrichment of the European countries, was escalated by the view that Africans were generally an inferior race to the whites. Colonialism also didn’t do any better in changing this premeditated
An overwhelming majority of African nations has reclaimed their independence from their European mother countries. This did not stop the Europeans from leaving a permanent mark on the continent however. European colonialism has shaped modern-day Africa, a considerable amount for the worse, but also some for the better. Including these positive and negative effects, colonialism has also touched much of Africa’s history and culture especially in recent years.