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Europe and Western Asia cultures, Islamic World, and African Societies and Kingdoms

explanatory Essay
1432 words
1432 words
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This paper will cover and explain chapters 7, 8, and 9. Over the past chapters that have been covered, they have all touched on the main focus of these three chapters. Chapter 7 covers Europe and Western Asia cultures such as the Byzantine Empire. Chapter 8 deals with the Islamic world, which will go over their origins and the expansion of their religion. Chapter 9 focuses on African Societies and Kingdoms which will cover the different cultures and the importance of certain societies that had an impact throughout African history. The Byzantine Empire survived the Germanic invaders while the Western parts of Rome Gradually succumbed to the attacks. The main reasons for their strength were military leadership and the fortification of their capital city. The military was led by General Priskos who defeated the Avars in 601 a.d. in a decisive victory. After a long war, Emperor Heraclius I finished by crushing the Persians in Iraq. Their fortification of the capital Constantinople was the most powerful defenses in the ancient world. Massive triple walls protected the city from any sea invasion. Within the walls cisterns provided water, and vast gardens and grazing areas supplied vegetation and meat. Because of the fortifications and provisions, the defenders could hold out much longer than any attacker. One of the more important events in their history was the Law Code Emperor Justinian organized. They had used Roman law, but by the fourth century so many laws had been appointed that it had become unorganized and unusable. The emperor appointed a committee to organize the laws. The result of the organization was called the “Code”, which outmoded and clarified the law itself. Justinian reworking of the law system ... ... middle of paper ... ...cross the Indian Ocean. The introduction of Islam in the eight century had weakened Aksum’s commercial prosperity. The Muslims attacked and destroyed Adulis. Some Aksumites converted to Islam while many others found refuge in the mountains where they were isolated from outside contacts. Frumentius, a Syrian Christian trader, is credited for the introduction of Christianity into Ethiopia. After being kidnapped, he was taken to Aksum and appointed tutor to the future king, Ezana. Later he went to Egypt and was consecrated the first bishop of Aksum. Shortly after, the royal members of the court accepted Christianity and it became Ethiopian state religion. The introduction of Christianity led to the production of written documents which made Ethiopia the first black society that could be studied from written records. Works Cited History of World Civilizations

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that the paper will cover and explain chapters 7, 8, and 9. chapter 7 covers europe and western asia cultures, while chapter 8 deals with the islamic world, and chapter 9 focuses on african societies and kingdoms.
  • Explains that the byzantine empire survived the germanic invaders while the western parts of rome succumbed to the attacks.
  • Explains how emperor justinian organized the law code, which outmoded and clarified the law itself.
  • Explains that the byzantines valued education and greek literature, and were influenced by mathematics and science. they discovered an explosive compound called greek fire, which saved constantinople from arab attacks.
  • Explains that islam originates with muhammad. most of what is known about muhammad is not from written accounts of his life, but from oral traditions passed down through the generations.
  • Explains that the islamic faith rests on the principle of the absolute unity and omnipotence of god, or allah. the qur'an states a strict code of moral behavior.
  • Explains that islam did not attract many people at first. muhammad's teachings called for a change in social order and the destruction of the idols in the ka'ba.
  • Opines that northern africa provided opportunities for other cultures to come into contact with the african people. the native berbers intermingled with muslim arabs who conquered north africa and with jews who settled in
  • Explains that agriculture began in africa in the fifth millennium b.c.e.
  • Describes how the people of the western sudan made the major shift from nomadic hunting to settled agriculture. the rich savanna was suited for the production of rice and sorghum.
  • Explains that the trans-saharan trade was the expression that described the north to south trade across the sahara. the camel was more efficient for desert transportation than either the horse or oxen.
  • Describes how the mountainous environment of ethiopia collected the three major middle eastern religions-judaism, islam, and christianity-and conditioned their society, bringing symbols of its culture identity.
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