Eukaryotic Cells are Deemed as a Result of the Evolution of Symbiotic Prokaryotes

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Eukaryotic Cells are Deemed as a Result of the Evolution of Symbiotic Prokaryotes Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells over time have sustained very dynamic changes from one another. More specifically we have seen the appearance of a more complicated and organized cell structure, the nucleus. However the big question amongst scientists today is how did these changes first occur? A fundamental concept of this evolution is the belief in the natural progression 'from the simple, to the more complex.' However one popular theory that argues that Prokaryotic symbiosis was responsible for forming the Eukaryotic nucleus is the 'Endosymbiotic Theory' this theory was first proposed by a former Boston University Biologist known as Lynn Margulis in the 1960's. Although the theory was ridiculed by a number of mainstream biologists, it now serves as a plausible and acceptable theory and explanation to the evolution of Eukaryotes. The theory states that the ancestors of eukaryotic cells were "symbiotic consortiums" of their prokaryotic cells, with at least one and possibly more species involved these were later known as endosymbionts. To put this into light, a reasonable example could be this: oxygen breathing bacteria invaded an anaerobic amoeba like bacteria and each then performed mutually benefiting functions. They would both end up helping each other greatly; the bacteria would breathe for the anaerobic amoeba like bacteria and the amoeba like bacteria would navigate through oxygen-rich waters in search of food. This way both of the bacteria organisms would be benefiting from a form of symbiosis. Other studies show that prior to the Cambrian Explosion of Eukaryote Organisms the oxygen levels began to soar immensely at about 2.5 billion years ago, followed by the first nucleated cell 1.5 billion years ago. Another important factor to this theory is one discovery made by a professor Kwang Jeon of the University of Tennessee. In 987 he noticed that his amoeba collection were developing large numbers of dots. These dots later turned out to be a bacterial invasion, they began killing of the professor's collection.

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