In other words, it attempts to explore and understand a specific issue or phenomenon, within its context, by examining the individual parts, or cases, which make it up. Stake refers to this whole, or specific phenomenon that is the main focus of study, as a quintain (p. vi). By studying a variety of data sources, multiple facets of the quintain can be revealed and understood, because it ensures that the phenomenon is not being view in a singular, or biased manner (Stake 2006). The Single Case Before proceeding with the workings of a multiple case study analysis, it is epistemologically important to understand and acknowledge the significance of the single case, which is studied not only as a single entity, but also in relation to its impact on the whole, as well as its correlations with other cases, across multiple conditions. This analysis will ideally aid in the general understanding of the elements of the quintain such as function and relationships.
Having decided on exactly what is to be studied the researcher then decides how the research can best be managed thus formulating a plan of action. Considerations include whether the research used should be primary or secondary. Whether one will test an existing hypothesis or whether one will construct a theory after having collated evidence. Finally one can draw conclusions as to which strategy to implement with the ultimate goal of producing the type of knowledge that is required. This then results in the type of method or methods of research to be used.
Validity A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
While the question may be asked as to whether a mixed methods research is possible in light of the two different paradigms, a researcher could resolve the issue through praxis, which Cameron sees as an important part of the mixed methods research. This debate over the ability to carry out such research process can be resolved by praxis, which Cameron describes as the mixed methods researcher becoming “knowledgeable, informed and familiar with the growing body of literature that forms mixed methods as a third methodological movement” (p. 102). Besides, not only must the researcher understand the discipline, but must also be familiar with the methodological and data integration in mixed methods research (Cameron, 2011, p. 102). In other words, debate over the practicality of mixed methods research can be addressed with the researcher recognizing the choices that are available to using mixed methods, and this is possible when mixed methods researchers become knowledgeable in both qualitative and quantitative research methods (Cameron, 2011, p. 104). The pragmatist approach in the research design and implementation phases allows for asking which techniques and procedures are best for the research problem.
This research is about and how it will be done before the standards of a large amount of thought necessary. 3.2 Research process: Learn something for the collection, compilation and dissemination of knowledge is inquiry. We can choose to use quantitative methods, qualitative methods, or simultaneously, depending on the object and purpose of the study. Because this study to deepen people's intention is to better understand and surrounding areas, qualitative research method is the most important objectives. Has already been the Strategic Research and data collection search tool in the investigation of the case and the choice of meeting the goals and purposes of this study have been identified and focused on the design.
These compositions should also be problem centered, meaning they should be centered around a research question. The writer should then consider the various approaches in writing a historiographical essay. Prevalent approaches include a “rival schools” point of view, the thematic approach and a State of the field
The purpose and focus of the lecture is to discuss and define the topics of individualism and collectivism from a cultural viewpoint. The information provided in this lecture will allow one to differentiate between the two attributes. In the conclusion, one will present the positive and negative effect of each attributes from a cultural perspective. Individualism and collectivism are essential terms that researchers use to help one understand culture differences and the impact they have on group behavior. It is important that one obtain the knowledge of both attributes because it can help individuals understand and recognize the different attitudes and behavior of other cultures.
Identify of a specific group, either individual, a small group, an organization or may involve other level such as a community and a relationship will claim as a beginning step to proceed for case study research. Stake (1995) mentioned that researcher need to know the purpose of conducting the case study in order to identify between three types. One is called as intrinsic case (a unique case that needs to be describe in detail) and another is called an instrumental case. An instrumental case need more understanding since specific issue, problem, or concern involved. Both intrinsic and instrumental case studies, if the researcher can identify is a key to understanding analysis in order to perform a good study research.
Introduction Postmodern anthropology can be described as a method to write about cultures in a certain way, by scrutinizing and interpreting the information gathered. Postmodern ethnographers believe that it is the way we interpret information that must be studied and that the voice of societies should be advocated through an informant. They also believe that to do this the use of collaborative ethnography is of vital importance. Collaborative ethnography is a relationship between ethnographers and informants. This, however, could be a team of ethnographers observing and studying a society, it could be a couple of ethnographers and more than one informant or it could be an ethnographer and his/her students.