It is ethnocentrism that gives people their sense of peoplehood, group identity, and place in history-all of which are valuable traits to possess. According to Sumner, Graham, American social scientist, said about Ethnocentrism becomes negative when "one's own group becomes the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it" (Sumner 1979, p. 13) We create bias toward our culture and form an idea that one's own culture is the main standard to evaluate another group leading to view. They make their culture the measuring stick. This means that people believe and feel in the superiority of one's own ethnic culture over other culture. This behavior is known as Ethnocentrism.
Stereotypes are common in every society, and often unaware they guide our behavior. However, stereotypical views can lead to prejudice, and turn to discrimination or stigmatization. Although “ethnocentrism is a major component in the social glue holding a culture together” ( Ethnocentrism, 2016), ethnocentric people generally distinguish the people on us and them.
That is to say it is anxiety that hinders them from intercultural communication. As Kathy McKeiver said “Both intercultural communication apprehension and ethnocentrism can have negative effects on an individual’s willingness to communicate outside of the ‘in-group’” (Kathy McKeiver 2013). Indeed, most people who live in foreign countries must experience this situation at least once. As an international student, I am no exception. Since I moved to New York, I have experienced lots of cultural shocks.
Adorus and his colleagues found a pattern of personality characteristics which they called the authoritarian personality. People with these behaviours were found to be: a) hostile to those they perceive to be of inferior status b) obedient and servile to those of higher status c) intolerant of uncertainty and ambiguity d) conventional ie upholding traditional values e) quite rigid in their opinions and beliefs, seeing most things in terms of black and white DISCRIMINATION Discrimination is usually the behavioural expression of prejudice. Discrimination is a way of behaving towards members of a categorized group so that all members of that group are treated in the same, usually unfair, way.
Tris constantly fights social identity all throughout the book; it is almost like peer pressure, but from society alone. With this social identity, one is usually classified in terms of what group they belong to. According to critic Kay Deaux, “to the extent that one defines oneself in terms of a particular group, it affects the behaviors one enacts for oneself and the way one interacts with others who may be members of a different group.” This quote explains how differently i... ... middle of paper ... ...opia: An Elusive Vision. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 1993. 11, 12.
For example, Asian culture and American culture are two totally different cultures that make Asian immigrant adults have a hard time to get to know the new cultures, moreover, this challenge might be able to influence their entire lives. Immigrant
Groups do so by forming a common enemy, which every group member can relate with each other in despising. Groups label out-groups in order to assure camaraderie among members and security. The existence of an outsider is in the beginning an essential condition of any warmth or togetherness within the group (Allport 99). Since whites are the dominant race in American society, being in the white in-group means having people of color as their common adversary. Feelings of prejudice arouse from the need of white people to feel comfortable with themsel... ... middle of paper ... ...ticles, if put together explain what the sources of racism are.
A revolutionist such as Steve Jobs, Martin Luther King Jr., Susan B. Anthony, and many others greatly benefited from breaking the social norm. All of these people were able to elevate to cultural figurehead through breaking the social norms of inequality, roles in society, and material values. These are the type of people who were able to highly benefit from breaking the social norm. Social norms are a double edged sword, they both keep society structured and also force people into categories through predetermined expectations of what they should do or how they will interact. It is my personal opinion that we gain a sense of unity for the price of prejudice and inequality.
So although most sources of knowledge are inherently biased it is up to the knowledge seeker to examine these sources and to the best of their ability derive the least bias and selective knowledge. For example, we learn in History class that communism was horrible and capitalism is so great. We are taught this in a democratic capitalist society that fears communism so I know that that there is bias. By researching other perspectives from countries both the past and present such as Russia, North Korea etc. I am able to produce my own knowledge that is as free of bias as possible.
Many groupings are no more than a gathering of people with mutual prejudices. Unity and growth can be easily produced in such a group, but it is an unhealthy development. Bitterness is the motivating force behind it all. The group is ah association of bitter people held together by common prejudices. There are many different kinds of prejudices.