However, the autocratic Ethiopian monarch began to dismantle the federation soon after its formation. The Eritrean-Ethiopian federation (1952-1962) was short-lived and Eritrea was annexed into Ethiopia. Eritrean’s discontent ultimately intensified, first as resistance, then rebellion, and finally an armed struggle for Eritrean national liberation that persisted until 1991. In October 1954, Sudan also voted for independence from its Egyptian and British colonizers. However, the people of South Sudan did not want to be subject to their historically cruel neighbors in Northern Sudan.
Eritrea, a former province of Ethiopia, has fought against the larger nation’s control for decades, resulting in war in the 1990s and massive tension in the area since. This border conflict has the potential to flare once again and throw the already chaotic Horn of Africa into another ongoing conflict. Ethiopia was granted rights to Eritrea in 1952 by the United Nations (UN), most likely due to its valiant efforts against the Axis Powers, specifically Italy, during World War II (The World Factbook, 2012). Ethiopia then annexed the smaller country as its province in 1962. Radical opposition to this overthrow of the country’s sovereignty began soon after, with the Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM) acting as the main force against Ethiopian occupation (Abbink, 2003, p. 408-11).
Since the 1970s through the 1990s Somalia has gone through much civil strife between different clans for the total control of Mogadishu, the capital city (Anup Shah, 2010). As a result of artificial creation of borders by European imperialism, the colonialist took it to themselves to partition up the natives and clans of African countries. Through the years, ethnic groups of Somalia and other African countries have intensified resulting in many humanitarian catastrophes and unsettling of civil conflict. The indirect effect of this caused widespread civil conflict not only in parts of Africa, but other parts of the world. It wasn’t until the 1900s that most of the countries affected by colonialism ... ... middle of paper ... ...at human beings deserve equal respect.
nited Nations Operations in Somalia 1992-1995: A study of the failures of Western peacekeeping efforts Introduction: Crisis in Somalia/Build up to Intervention: Somali state collapse in 1991 came about through an amalgamation of internal and external factors. External factors contributing to the eventual collapse included the legacies of European colonialism that separated the Somali people into five states or around 14 sub-clans, the impact of Cold War politics, and the cumulative effect of wars with neighbour states, most detrimentally the 1977-78 Ogaden war with Ethiopia. Internally, the key factor was the contradictions of the centralised state authority. Arguably the crisis began in 1988 when an armed insurgency, the Somali National Movement (SNM), attacked government garrisons in the north of the country. The SNM formed in the early 1980s and drew its support from the Isaaq clan.
The Addis Ababa Peace Agreement of 1972 between the Sudan government and the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement ended the First Civil War. When President Gaafar Nimeiry violated the agreement by seizing valuable oil fields, the Second Civil War broke out in 1983. For the next 22 years, rebel groups fought in ... ... middle of paper ... ...n its own” (Hamilton). More countries must support the struggling new nation. Now that the two Sudanese ethnic groups are governed separately, hopefully the order will not collapse, but solidify.
During World War II, the British expelled the Italians from Africa through the Battle of Keren, and in 1951, Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia, which eventually led to its annexation as an Ethiopian province in 1952. Following a 30-year war, Eritrea gained independence and international recognition in 1993. In May 1998, Eritrea crossed over the Ethiopian border attacking Tigrayan militia and security forces in the Badme region. This hostile act sparked the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. Upon realization that they were going lose... ... middle of paper ... ...adme: bitter warfare continues along the Eritrea-Ethiopia border.
United States Role in Somalia: Crucial to Development With a long history of violence, rebellion, and chaos, the African country of Somalia now seeks guidance. The country’s violent past started when military forces overthrew the last democratically elected government in October 1969, about 37 years ago. Military rule undermined, and ultimately destroyed the country. The military regime divided citizens into allies and enemies, and rewarded its allies while it punished whole communities. Life conditions in Somalia became so unbearable that the President Bush, Sr. was forced to act, and ordered thousands of American troops to enter Somalia in order to open the roads so that emergency food aid could be urgently delivered to the citizens.
The inequality felt by the South resulted in a civil war against the North. The first Civil War took place in 1955. before Sudan declared independence and ended in 1972 resulting in autonomy for the South. Another ... ... middle of paper ... ... and trying to make them cooperate was the biggest flaw of the British colonialism. Then when that didn’t work out, the British developed the North far more than the South, thus creating resentment in the South. With the end of colonialism the British left a nation that was unstable politically and culturally.
He was terrified that these countries were not going to protect Ethiopia any longer because they were very engrossed in dividing up Africa. In addition Ethiopia’s boundary on the sea fell into the hands of Muslims. Menelik hoped that through “Jesus Christ Ethiopia will regain its ri... ... middle of paper ... ...y, Italy, and Russia, 1891. Mojimba, an African chief, describing a battle in 1877 on the Congo River against British and African mercenaries, as told to a German Catholic missionary in 1907. Ndansi Kumalo, an African Veteran of the Ndebele Rebellion against British advances in southern Africa, 1896.
WE STEM FROM COLONIALISM – MASS FRUSTRATIONS AND POPULAR UPRISINGS “We prefer to rule ourselves badly, nationalists argued, than let ourselves be governed well by others.” To comprehend fully where the anger and frustration of the Egyptian mob stems from, we must travel back in time, 70 years from the coup, to the year 1882. A brief survey of Egypt’s colonial history is needed to explain the processes of later times. In said year, the British occupied the Ottoman province (more like an autonomous region) of Egypt. As it often was in British colonial and diplomatic past, this too was a masked occupation. Cowering behind ideals, the British have started a gradual, but wholesome change in Egyptian society that would later serve as a catalyst for the uprisings.