Animal and Human Cloning: Moral, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues Dolly, woolly, innocent, and sweet, strongly contrasts with the severity of the issues that she has raised. Ever since the news surfaced that Dr. Ian Wilmut had succeeded in cloning a sheep, people around the world have been participating in a frenzied debate over the morality of cloning animals, and more importantly human beings. The cloning of animals and humans could help the world in unprecedented ways, but could also give rise to unforeseen problems. It raises moral, ethical, and regulatory issues which must be considered during with the formation of cloning legislation. While I believe animal cloning is useful on a restricted level, I feel that human cloning is unnecessary and I advocate its full prohibition.
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Human Cloning Debate and Life Issues The use of cloning to produce "Dolly" the sheep has prompted a public debate about cloning humans. This issue has quickly become linked with the issues of abortion and embryo research. What is cloning? Cloning is a way of producing a genetic twin of an organism, without sexual reproduction. The method used to produce Dolly the sheep is called "somatic cell nuclear transfer": the nucleus of a body cell ("somatic cell") is transferred into an unfertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed or rendered inactive.
BACKGROUND On July 5, 1996, researchers in Scotland made history when they announced the birth of Dolly, the world’s first successful cloning of a sheep (Appendix A.1). The world was shocked. The ability to reproduce human beings without sexual reproduction was no longer only an idea to be explored in sci-fi movies and books. After over forty years of research and development, human cloning is quickly becoming a reality. The basic technique used to clone humans and animals, somatic-cell nuclear transfer, involves the insertion of DNA from a soma... ... middle of paper ... ...MA.
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another. Scientist transfer genetic materials from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus has been removed. This reconstructed egg containing the DNA must be treated with chemicals or electric current to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it develops until birth (Paul Lauritzen, Cloning). The most notable example of reproductive cloning was dolly the sheep.
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The scientists then committed somatic cell nuclear transfer and took the inactive donor cells and fused them with an egg without a nucleus from a different bread of sheep. Then, continuing to use the reproductive cloning procedure, the scientist implanted the egg into a third breed of sheep’s uterus. When Dolly came to full term and was born, the scientist immediately recognized that the lamb looked very similar to the breed of the sheep who donated the DNA, and nothing like the sheep who donated the egg or gave birth to the lamb. Later on, DNA tests confirmed that indeed, Dolly was an exact clone of the DNA donor. On April 13, 1998 Dolly gave birth to a healthy lamb, proving her health to be standard.
In fact, twins are closer to one another that any clone that could be made because of a seemingly special bond created during pregnancy. New techniques are also feared, such as with Dolly. Another group of reasons concern Dolly. Originally an attempt at creating a sheep that produced a special quality of milk, Dolly was created from a group led by Dr. Ian Wilmut at the Roslin Institute in Scotland on July 5, 1996. They used a different method for mammals than used previously by starving the pre-cloned cells into hibernation, and then using nuclear transfer (copying the nucleus of the cell).
Isolate an individual gene from one organism and grow it in another organism belonging to a different species. 2. While this is occurring a scientist can also take a cells chromosomes and nucleus, and inject them into a fertilized egg whose own nucleus has been removed. C. New Process 1. Taking mammary-gland cells from a sheep and starve them of growth, then electrically inject an egg which was later transplanted into a surrogate mother.