Genetic testing is a class of medical testing that recognize changes in chromosomes, gene or proteins. This type of test look for abnormalities in DNA or RNA that is collected from a person’s blood, body fluids or tissues. Genetic testing scans the genes looking for large or small change that occur to gene. These changes to the genes could have missing or addition parts that could change the chemical base within the DNA strand. Abnormal genes could be the result of other mistakes like the genes are too active, they are turned off, or those that are lost entirely. Having abnormal results on genetic testing could mean that a person is prone in having a genetic disorder. There are different types of genetic testing for adults and embryos that could help in identifying
Prenatal genetic testing is a controversial issue in early development. With more genes being identity and linked to particular disorders, more people are seeking more prenatal genetic testing. As technology develops to advance these tests and to make new tests, advantages and disadvantages become apparent. This comes with a more stable feeling of knowing the child’s health and the ability to catch any warning signs of major diseases or disorders early on, but this also can bring a sense of anxiety and worry for the soon-to-be parents. There is also an ethical dilemma with genetic testing.
Genetic testing is the testing of DNA in a patient’s blood in order to detect genetic disorders. This can be used to predict the disease risk of an embryo, an unborn infant, or a fully grown patient, including the individual’s risk of passing on a genetic disorder to offspring (National Institute of Health [NIH], 2013). To test adult patients, a blood sample is first taken from the patient and the DNA ...
Is Gene Testing Ethical?
Gene testing is the practice of testing individuals who show no symptoms to determine whether they carry genes that could cause them or their children to develop certain genetic diseases later in life. Gene screening is a very controversial topic because of the risks that come with it. Would you want to know if you’ll develop a life threatening disease later in life? Many individuals would want to know this, but some would not.
Few questions come up when the topic of genetic testing is brought up. The question that probably comes up the most is; what exactly is genetic testing or screening? Genetic testing or screening is when doctors do a dna test and look for mutations in the genes. Then they try and figure out what the mutations could do in the future. Why would people want to get their genes tested? Genetic testing opens the possibilities of people knowing the future of themselves and their children. It also gives people opportunities to find out if they have a chance of passing a disease or disability on to future generations. Another common question is who can get...
In chapter four of her book Genetic Dilemmas, Dena Davis asserts that it is unethical for parents to subject their children to genetic testing for the markers of adult-onset genetic diseases because it places an unfair constraint on a child’s right to an open future. It both removes the child’s ability to choose whether to be tested as an adult and has the potential to negatively alter the overall trajectory of their lives. While the current consensus amongst medical professionals is that such testing should be prohibited (Davis, _____), many concerned parents correctly point out that discouraging such testing creates a conflict of interests between the “beneficence model of patient care and the rights of parents to their own autonomy” (Davis, 75). The availability of commercial online and mail-order genetic testing kits further exacerbates this dilemma by enabling these dissenting parents to obtain test results for their children. Davis ultimately makes a convincing argument that “parental requests for genetic information about their children, when they have no immediate relevance to medical intervention or disease prevention, should generally be resisted” (Davis, 87). This paper seeks to demonstrate that in the case of testing for incurable, late onset genetic diseases, protecting the rights and interests of the child should take precedence over parental autonomy, and that there is a marked need for tighter regulation of commercial genetic testing in order to protect these rights.
Genetic screening is the procedure of analyzing DNA specimen to detect the presence of a gene or genes related with an inherited disorder (Genetic screening 2011). In order to determine a person’s opportunity of developing a genetic disorder, the results of a genetic test can exclude a doubted genetic condition (What is genetic testing? 2011). It helps the infertility to have their next generation in future. Besides that, genetic screening has been carried out for partially common reasons as non-genetic screening for the health care of the ill and protection of diseases. Gitzelmann and Finley stated that genetic screening is a public health of first step not only because the gigantic demand for health message of families but despite of this challenge it at present to affect the livelihood of thousands of human being (cited in Miller 1999). In addition, the stated problem of genetic manipulation has absolutely aroused a big can of worms these past few years. Although genetic screening has been around for the past ten years, it should not be used to screen any healthy babies because the cost of the genetic screening is unaffordable by some low-income families, the reliability of genetic screening is still a question and the genetic screening is an immoral behavior.
Prenatal genetic testing is being performed constantly somewhere. Prenatal genetic testing is an ethical issue itself, but the advice these parents are given is a much larger ethical issue. Is it just to preform prenatal testing; in other words is it fair and are the risks and benefits provided equally to the parents? Are parents treated fairly when making the decision for prenatal genetic testing? “As tests become part of routine clinical practice, they become normalized and harder to question or decline” (Deans, Hill, & Lewis 2013). Parents are pressured into preforming these tests because they do not want to feel as if they are being judged or making the wrong decision according to someone else. Prenatal genetic testing can be as simple
The term “genetic testing” covers an array of techniques and can be defined as the analysis of human DNA, RNA, genes and/or chromosomes or the analysis of human proteins or certain metabolites, with the primary purpose of detecting a heritable genotype, mutation, phenotype or karyotype . Genetic tests are used as a health tool to detect gene variants associated with specific disease or condition, as well as for non-clinical uses such as paternity testing and forensics. In clinical testing, genetic tests can be performed to determine the genetic cause of a disease, confirm a suspected diagnosis, predict future illness, detect when an individual might pass a genetic mutation to his or her children, and predict response to therapy. They are also performed to screen new born, foetuses or embryos used in in-vitro fertilisation for genetic defects.
The information received from genetic tests on actionable alleles is very important to individuals health, both in a physical sense, yet also in an emotional/mental sense. Through genetic testing people are able to better feel out what their lives will be like in the future, and can better predict their lives and plan to take action. Though these actions may be taken in error, upon hearing a life threatening verdict from a doctor, people usually look to live life to a fuller extent than if they had no cares in the world. It is for the reason that knowledge allows people to make decisions where no information leaves everything to chance, I would want to have a little control over an uncontrollable situation.