Introduction The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has published that the tourism industry has experienced continued growth and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world for the past six decades. For many economies, tourism has become a key driver for socio-economic progress. It has generated an estimated gross output of US $3.5 trillion and the figure is expected to increase to US $7.0 trillion by 2011 (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2009). The future of the tourism industry is bright as the World Tourism Organization (WTO) forecasts that an estimated one billions tourists will be traveling around the world by the year 2010. The expansion and growth of tourism has contributed to the development of the developed countries as well as less developed counties.
Tourism has become a main component for socio- economies for many countries. From all countries in the world, tourism has generated whole countries output of US $3.5 trillion and expected to increase to US $7.0 trillion by 2015 (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2009). The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has expected that tourism industry is bright in the future as they estimate that one billions of tourists in each year will travel to other countries. Moreover, the economic potential of tourism in less developed countries has been identified as an important contributing factor to global tourism growth (Palmer 2002; Honey 1999; Ashley & Reo 1998; Mowforth & Munt 1998). In Malaysia, manufacturing has become the largest contributor to economy followed by the second contributor that is tourism sector.
This event was a huge success which more than 7 million international tourist arrivals were recorded with a growth of 53.6 per cent. Moreover, the slogan ‘Malaysia Truly Asia’ is a large advertising campaign sponsored by the Malaysian government which is internationally recognized as a uniquely Malaysian brand to promote tourism in Malaysia. The Malaysian tourism industry had faced with several challenges such as the unstable world economics, politics, SARS and challenge posed by the other ASEAN countries competing to draw tourists had initiated Malaysia to set its own strategy in diversifying the tourist attractions. However, according to the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB), which called Tourism Malaysia (2008) aims to encourage tourism and its related industries in Malaysia. It is expected that tourism would help promote new investments in the country, as well as provide increased employment opportunities.
Despite the devastating effects of the 2008 global financial crisis and the subsequent Euro zone crisis, the tourism industry has continued to flourish. Initially, the industry was referred to as a cottage industry but the international travel and tourism industry has evolved becoming a major contributor to economic growth and development in almost every economy in the world. Research has shown that the global increase in worldwide tourist arrivals outperform gross domestic product growth in one out of every two years in the past three decades. Many countries regard tourism as the most significant primary export industry especially the developing world. Nonetheless, in terms of returns, the developed economies are the prime beneficiaries of tourism.
Introduction According to the World Trade Organization, tourism is the largest economic activity in the world. This industry is a key driver of economic progress in many countries in the world and its role in economic development can be expected to increase even though the sector continues to experience expansion. One subset of tourism patterns that has gained prominence over the past few decades is sports tourism. The number of sporting events taking place all over the world has increased and many people travel to foreign destinations either to participate in or observe and attend the events. This paper will set out to demonstrate that sports tourism has a positive socio-economic impact on the destination country, which is hosting a sport event.
This initiated the tourism boom; a period of intense structural and economic growth during which tourist arrivals grew by 16.5 million between 1973 and 1987 (Solsten and Menditz, 1988) and created an industry that today accounts for ‘11% of Spain’s GDP’ (OECD Publishing, 2008:198). This analysis will discuss the contrasting effects that tourism has had on regional Spain and consider how tourism as a diverse product can continue to be an important source of income. The combination of sun, beaches and low prices offered along the Mediterranean coast and Balearic Islands, is what initially attracted tourists to Spain. Rapid economic growth, far beyond that of more northern ‘communidades’, and ‘uncoordinated and unplanned’ (Burton, 1997:230) construction of ‘ciudades de hormigón’, such as Benidorm and Benalmadena, produced low quality structures, damaged the local environment and exploited natural resources. The spread of population across the regions also experienced ‘a shift towards the Costas and Balearic Islands’ (Burton, 1997:231) where employment opportunities were seasonal but vast.
Tourism is “one of the most profitable and rapidly developing industries in the world” (Popushoi, 2004). Every year the number of tourists increase dramatically and consequently the revenues from tourism will increase substantially. The increase in revenue from tourists has allowed the Australian government to further develop infrastructure and services to cater the large influx of tourism. An example of how the Victorian government spent a large proportion of tourism revenue would be the development and implementation of the Ferris Wheel in Docklands known as ‘The Melbourne Star’. Not only has new infrastructure been built, but also heritage or run-down tourist complexes have been renovated or restored.
Malaysia’s tourism achieved above expectations in 2013 with tourist receipts of RM65.44 billion, which exceeding the target of RM65 billion. The foreign exchange earnings also grew by 8.1 per cent from RM60.56 billion in 2012, an increase of RM4.89 billion. In terms of tourist arrivals increased by 2.7 per cent to 25.7 million compared to 25.0 million in 2012 (The government of Malaysia, 2014). Meanwhile, Malaysia expects to earn RM168 billion from the targeted 36 million tourists arrivals by 2020 under the Malaysia Tourism Transformation Plan (MTTP). Despite, the factor that leads the success of Malaysia’s tourism is tourism planning and arrangement for tourism development that the government plays greatly important role to the tourism sector, it is evident that the government is attempting to implement the tourism policies and strategies as well as to provide various campaigns and programs in order to achieve the tourism goals.
Travel and Tourism are considered one of the world’s largest industries in economy which outperformed the global economy and grew faster than many other remarkable global. It is seen as the key promoter of both economic growth and social development because of its potential to promote understanding and international relationship. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council’s (WTTC) economic impact research, in 2013, Travel and Tourism grew its total contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 3.2%, which it represents US$7.0 trillion in GDP and approximate 4.7 million new jobs were created as a result of tourism activity. While in 2014, Travel and Tourism growth are expected to outpace growth in the whole economy GDP approximate 4.3% and it is expected to generate approximate 6.5 million new jobs as well (WTTC, 2014). The importance of Travel and Tourism as a mechanism for economic development and job creation is clear.