A privately owned company constructed the current Peace Bridge in 1927. It became a link between Fort Erie, Canada and Buffalo, New York. The bridge is over one mile long, 5,800 feet, and holds three lanes of traffic. The center lane may go north or south depending on the volume of traffic. In 1934, the Great Depression caused a change. The Peace Bridge became publicly owned. As a result there were no taxes to be paid, and financing for projects could be obtained by issuing bonds at a low interest rate. The publicly owned bridge instituted a board of governors called the Peace Bridge Authority, PBA. The board, which made all decisions, was made up of six Americans and three Canadians. Fr...
The first and most challenging problem associated with building the Mackinac Bridge arrived long before the bridge was even designed. Financing such an enormous project was no easy feat. In 1928, the idea of connecting the upper and lower peninsulas was proposed to Congress for the first time (Brown 4). At the time, the suspected bridge project was very much under government scrutiny and control. In fact, the initial boost in interest in pursuing the construction of a bridge came about due to the depression. The Public Works Administration (PWA) had been created under President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal economic plan which would fund certain construction projects with th...
In the early 1800s, the nation's woeful road system quickly gave way to water transportation. The latter option was aided immeasurably by the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825), which linked the New York canal system to Lake Erie at Buffalo and opened the Great Lakes region to commerce, as well as ...
In the early nineteenth century the nation’s highways were the waterways such as rivers and canals. These means of travel were effective to an extent, but were limited by their permanent routes. The situation with the United States was that there was a thin population spread out over an enormous country, with long distances between major cities. Business owners and the government were looking for ways to improve economic chances. Cheap efficient land transportation was an essential need of the industrial revolution because the existing road transportation by wagon was just simply too slow.
(Pg 22). The United States of America, which was considered young at that time, was faced with problems of economical growth and development. The country had no major canal connecting the coastal areas to the west and transportation of agricultural and manufactured products was a big challenge to the people. In addition to that, the primitive style of transportation was not just out of date; it was also an impediment on economic growth. For instance, the cost of transporting commodities by wagon over the rough roads from Buffalo to Albany, New York, often involved sums equal to five or six times the values of the goods themselves.(pg-99). Not many were willing to embark on long distance travel over rough roads and paths. To solve this problem, America would have to surmount the Appalachian mountain which posed a big barrier between the coastal states and enormous lands at the opposite side. The then president of the United States, President George Washington, who happened to be the first among the visionaries of a sort of waterway project, feared the danger of losing these vast lands to some European countries unless a form of communication is established between the two ends. In his effort to forestall the threatening breakup of the union as a result of the barrier, President Washington had to come up with a contemporary solution which eventually became a platform for the construction of the Erie
Over the East River in New York City stands the Brooklyn Bridge, connecting the Brooklyn and Manhattan boroughs. From end to end, the bridge spans 6,016 feet and weighs a heavy 14,680 tons. Ever since construction on the Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883, the bridge has offered a safe route with scenic views to tens of thousands of tourists and commuters who have traveled it via train, car, pushcart, and bicycle. The history behind the Brooklyn Bridge is definitely intriguing as well as important because many fatalities occurred in the construction process, including one which occurred before construction on the bridge even started. Also, a lot of workers, time and money were used in building the bridge. In addition,
On December 29, 1876, a train was crossing over a railroad bridge spanning the Ashtabula River when the entire bridge collapsed, sending most of the train into the frigid water below. This disaster would be the deadliest bridge disaster in the United States. Investigators quickly tried to determine why this bridge, after eleven years of service, collapsed. The investigators would ultimately place the blame on the president of the Ashtabula Railroad Company, Amasa Stone. The bridge was constructed with many flaws, both known and unknown. This disaster would lead to people realizing the need for structural standards for bridges and qualified engineers.
Approximately 600 workers were related to the construction and total cost at that time was $15 million. As it was constructed after the Civil War when the racism between people’s was very severe. The workers were actually poor and immigrated people. So they got paid very less wage like $2 dollars for a day or something. They also worked under a very uncomfortable situation like in very hot weather, in rain, under water which made many of them sick. They also get many types of normal disease to serious disease like headaches, itchy skin, bloody noses and slowed heartbeats. More than 100 workers suffered of numbness, speech impediments, joint pain, paralysis, convulsions and some were dead. There were very fewer safety rules for them at that time. Their contribution made it possible to construct the bridge. When the first day it opened, approximately 250,000 people walked across it and people witnessed a great invention. A week after the opening, approximately 20,000 people were on the bridge when a wrong panic started that the bridge was about to collapse. Then people started to run and twelve people were crushed to death and many people
The 14-year construction of this urban landmark that stretched across the East River was completed in May of 1883. This was not only a bridge; it stood for many significant symbols. During this time period, the industrial aspects of things were at its peak and this represented the strength of the industry. Also it symbolized the use of immigrant workers and how much time and effort they put into making this bridge. Twenty seven men died while creating this bridge and that is something that most people forget when looking at the bridge, people risked there lives while giving a society that people needed. Not only that but it took tons and tons of steel and iron in order to complete this bridge and it was part of the steel and iron boom. This landmark led to the rise o...
The industrial Midwest has been on a decline for the past four decades. Many companies have left Southeastern Michigan to produce goods elsewhere. When these companies moved their operations to other cities, much of the population in the region moved also. These people left to seek job opportunities in other urban areas. When industries and people leave an area, the infrastructure is often left behind. Buildings, land, and infrastructure remain vacant in Detroit +because of this exodus from the region. The framework of the region largely resembles the period before Detroit was incorporated as a city aside from the infrastructure that has been left behind. The availability of existing infrastructure coupled with the new capabilities of the Halifax Port in Nova Scotia Canada, offers Detroit the opportunity to transform the region into an international shipping hub. The Great Lakes Global Freight Gateway Project is a program that will utilize these vacant assets to create an inland port in Detroit and to promote global trade from the Midwest (GLFG3, 3:33/8:46). This essay is going to show how the Great Lakes Global Freight Gateway Project can restore economic vitality to the region and provide growth opportunities for all stakeholders.
The Great Lakes Global Freight Gateway (GLGFG) Project is an initiative that seeks to transform the Southeastern Michigan and Southwestern Ontario region into a multimodal transshipment hub. This hub will be where goods are moved through the Port of Halifax, loaded on the new Maersk Triple-E container ships, and shipped to worldwide markets. The Port of Halifax is currently the only deep-water port that can accommodate these post-panamax container ships. These Triple-E ships can move up to 18,000 containers and, due to the economies of scale, reduce the shipping cost per container; thereby reducing cost to manufactures (GLFGr4, pg. 4). Detroit is currently the best-situated city for repositioning its main economic engine to transcontinental shipping. The location on an international border and the system of rail lines and roadways in the region, are the assets that make this opportunity possible. That is the broad view of the project, but many people want to know a more narrow scope of the project. They want to know the local impact of the project. This essay will address the local angle by illustrating how the decline of the automobile industry has placed this region in a position for revival as a transshipment hub. Also, this essay will illustrate how economic activity from The Great Lakes Global Freight Gateway Project can regenerate local real estate markets.
The current size, inherent values, and economic status of the United States owes greatly to the paramount figures and events that took place during the Early National Period of the country. However, while there is no doubt that such events- and the figures behind them- were of great importance and have molded the country into the pristine product that it is today, the various construction projects of that time have gone largely unnoticed. Canals, being one of the most prominent advances in transportation, are prime examples of forgotten catalysts of the American nation. The construction of canals- particularly the Erie Canal- during the 19th century played a key role in the geographic, economic, and cultural development of the country by
During a fast growing economic time, The Chesapeake & Ohio Northern Railway Company, or C&O Railroad for short, had the bridge constructed to expand their railroad even more. The C&O Railroad has a unique and somewhat confusing history that can be traced back to 1836 when the railroad went by the name of Louisa Railroad. Based out of Louisa County, Virginia the rail was a small company that owned a set of tracks from Richmond to Charlottesville. After the company had another change in name to the Virginia Central Railroad in 1850, the Civil War broke out. Virginia Central decided to support the Confederate Army by shipping supplies for battle and in some cases even transporting Troops straight into battle. This caused the Virginia Central lines to be targets of the north where much of the rail was
Entrepreneurs realized the need for more ways to move resources and goods. A new form of transportation overtook both roads and canals: The Railroad. It has been said by many economic historians that railroads were “the most important single factor in promoting European economic progress in the 1830s and 1840s.” (Spielvogel 608) The railroad proved to be faster, more reliable, and cheaper than canals (Kennedy 313).