* If the water with Alka-Seltzer tablets are stirred during the reaction, then the rates of reactions will increase because the particles will be forced to make contact with each others and react much quicker, rather than take their time to make contact, and therefor... ... middle of paper ... ... water bath could have been used, because I could set it to my required temperature. Also it would mean that the solution inside it would reach the exact temperature or close to It., and not increase or decrease once the water inside it has reached equilibration. It was also very difficult for me to observe exactly when the Alka-Seltzer tablets had totally dissolved and consistently decide this for every result obtained. This was probably the main factor that would have decreased the accuracy of my readings. To avoid this happening I would have needed to use specialized piece of equipment which would tell me exactly when the tablet was dissolved Overall, I can come to firm conclusion from my results that support my prediction and background knowledge that: As the temperature increases, less time will be required for a reaction to take place i.e.
Stirring.Because stirring moves the molecules around faster, they are more likely to collide and therefore react. This reason is similar to the last. Beaker Type. When monitoring a reaction where you judge how far a reaction has gone by how cloudy the mixture has become, then putting the same volume into a beaker with a larger area base would mean that you were looking through less depth of liquid than before. The liquid would not appear as cloudy, and the rate of reaction would seem to be less than if a smaller beaker had been used.
A larger surface area will also speed up the reaction time. This is because with a larger surface area the more particles there will be to collide with each other. This therefore will be faster than using a smaller surface area. Lastly a catalyst would increase the speed of the reaction as it reacts with the elements in the solution without being used up itself. Equation for experiment: [IMAGE]Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + sulphur + sulphur dioxide [IMAGE]Na S O (aq) + 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + S (s) + So (g) + Water H O (l) Effect of Changing Concentration Key variables: These are the factors I could vary: * Temperature * Concentration * Surface area * Use of a catalyst
So for the same mass of the marble chips, small chips have a larger surface area than bigger chips, this means that rate of the small chips will be quicker than the bigger ones. Here are reasons why changing the variable is likely to have an effect: - Temperature: if you are to change the temperature it will change the rate as well. If you increase the temperature this will increase the rate, because the heat gives energy to the acid and water particles, which means they hit the marble chips more. - Concentration: If you are to change the concentration there is a definite change in the rate. The more acid you add the quicker the rate because as you increase the concentration of the acid, there are more acid particles in the same volume.
Rates of Reaction Investigation In this experiment we will try to find out whether increasing the amount of sodium thiosulphate would increase the rate of reaction. Theory ====== It is known that the more sodium thiosulphate there is in the flask the quicker the reaction will be. This is because there are there are more molecules in the container and so there are more collisions in the molecules. (See diagram below for further explanation) [IMAGE] [IMAGE] = Hydrochloric acid (stays the same) = Sodium thiosulphate (doubles from flask A to flask B) As you can see there are more particles in flask B and so therefore there are more collisions than in flask A which means that he reaction is quicker in flask B than in A. Also the number of collisions doubles per unit time and the number of collisions per unit time is proportional to the rate of reaction.
Because of this I expect the reaction rate to be quicker when the concentration of the acid is higher. The reaction should however, end on the same amount of gas given off. Rate is measured by the disappearance of reactants and/or the appearance of a product. Prediction When the concentration of acid increases the rate of reaction will increase. I will be able to see the rate of reaction is increasing as the gas is produced more quickly.
From the diagram you can see that the three smaller particles have a larger surface area all together (shown as blue) than the larger particle and so will react faster. There are more calcium carbonate particles on the the concentration of the hydrochloric acid Text Box: surface for the acid to react with. Powders of a Calcium carbonate react even faster as the of calcium carbonate particles showing to react with the acid particles is even greater. Crushing up the solid in an experiment can make a long experiment a lot faster and more violent. The reason that, with a larger surface area a solid reacts faster is that there are more particles showing for the liquid or gas to react with.
Aim: Effect of temperature on rate of reaction. Hypothesis: I predict that the rate of reaction will increase in speed by increasing the temperature, because Raising the temperature makes particles collide more often in a certain time, and makes it more likely that collision results in a reaction. Apparatus required: 1) 4 conical flasks 2) An amount of HCl 3) An amount of Na2S2O3 4) Timer (stop-watch) 5) A tile with a mark (X) on it 6) 2 measuring cylinders 7) 1 empty beaker Procedure: 2- Use 20cm3 of water with 30cm3 of HCl 3- Add the solution to 30cm3 of Na2S2O3 4- Put a conical flask on a tile with a mark (X) on it. 5- Put the first solution in the flask. 6- Put the flask in a water bath at a controlled temperature of 30ºC.
- A catalyst speeds up a reaction; an inhibitor (a substance) slows it down. * Concentration- The more concentrated the faster the rate (note in some cases the rate may be unaffected by the concentration of a particular reactant provided it is present at a minimum concentration). Remember for gasses, increasing the pressure simply increases the concentration so that's the same thing. * Surface area- greater surface area and since the reaction occurs at the surface we get a faster rate. * Temperature- Usually reactions speed up with increasing temperature ("100C rise doubles rate").
* Number of calcium carbonate chips – if there are a lot of chips more carbon dioxide will be formed. * Amount of acid – if there is more acid the rate of reaction will be faster. * Surface area – if the chips have a larger surface area then the rate of reaction will be faster. Prediction: I have chosen to investigate the affect of hydrochloric acid on calcium carbonate chips. I predict that as the temperature of the acid increases so will the rate of reaction.