Abstract Sickle Cell Anemia is a hereditary disease that changes the smallest and most important components of the body. A gene causes the bone marrow in the body to make sickled shapes, when this happens; it causes the red blood cell to die faster. This is what causes Hemolytic Anemia. Older children and adults with sickle cell disease may experience a few complications, or have a pattern of ongoing problems that shorten their lives. The most common and serious complications of sickle cell disease are anemia, pain, fatigue, and organ failure.
Meanwhile, the bone marrow, where red blood cells are made, pitches in by making more cells. It can't keep up with the destruction, though, so the total number of red blood cells drops to a low level and the body becomes anemic. ("Anemic" is the medical word for having a low number of red blood cells.) What is sickle cell anemia? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease of red blood cells.
Sickle cells can clog vessels depriving tissues of oxygen. As spoken of in two articles, sickle cells have a shorter life span than normal red blood cells. Normal red blood cells can live 120 days compared to sickle cells that only last 10 to 20 days, resulting in anemia. (Learn genetics, 2010 & Nabili, 2008) Sickle cell anemia does not only have one primary cause, but also has a variety of symptoms. Sickle cell anemia has various symptoms that may vary upon every individual.
Sickle cell diseases (SCD) are diseases which are caused due to disorder of hemoglobin in hour body. Hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen through the red blood cells. People with sickle cell diseases have hemoglobin S which shapes the red blood cells in a sickle shape. Sickle cell diseases cause painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), stroke, acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestration, chronic pulmonary and renal dysfunction, and a vascular necrosis of the joints. It also causes physical and psychological stress of illness.
As earlier mentioned, red blood cell contain hemoglobin. Hemoglobin’s carry two different types of protein chains: the alpha globin and beta globin. The body of a person with Thalassemia will not function well due to inadequate or abnormal production of alpha or beta protein chain which in turn, affects red blood cells performance of their functions. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2013) ex... ... middle of paper ... ...onditions/thalassemia/basics/symptoms/con-20030316?p=1 Medical News Today (2014, July 17). What Is Thalassemia?
Sickle Cell Disease is a condition where there is not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Another name for sickle cell disease is sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is inherited as a simple recessive condition. In normal red blood cells, the cells are usually flexible and round. However, in sickle cell disease the red cells become rigid and sticky.
Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin due to a mutation in the hemoglobin chain. This type of hemoglobin is known as sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. Sickle hemoglobin is what distorts red blood cells into a sickle shape. Sickle cells are sticky and less elastic than normal red blood cells. They are not able to pass through the blood as easily so in result they tend to block blood flow in blood vessels. Blocked blood flow causes pain, organ damage, and increases the risk for infections.
It also blocks the airways in the lungs causing difficulty in breathing, and eventually developing obstructive lung disease and infections that lead to premature death. Most deaths in CF occur from lung infections (Human Heredity). CF is caused by a mutation in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane-conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene on chromosome 7. CFTR is 1 of the 9 Chloride channel proteins now known in humans. It provides instructions and transportation of chloride ions into and out of cells.
Thalassemia is basically a name for similar groups of inherited blood diseases that involve missing or abnormal genes regarding the protein in hemoglobin which is the red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body. I will discuss the different types of Thalassemia, how Thalassemia is diagnosed, and the treatments available. I will also discuss the complications and side effects of the treatments, the disease’s causes and effects, and how it is more dominant in some parts of the world than others. Thalassemia is a blood disorder which means the body makes fewer healthy red blood cells and less hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen throughout the body and having less hemoglobin leads to anemia.
The sickle shape comes from the atypical hemoglobin s molecules. Hemoglobin molecules are composed of two different parts called the alpha and beta. The beta subunit of the hemoglobin molecule has a mutation in gene, on chromosome 11 which produces the change in the red blood cell shape causing them to die and not reproduce accurately. The change in shape causes the red blood cells to get stuck in the blood vessels and block the effectiveness of oxygen transport causing pain and organ damage to the body. This disease does not have a cure and some common treatments are used to help patients live with the disease.