It separates the biological (sex) from the social (gender). Both arguments put forward by both Stoller and de Beauvoir show that biological determinism between the sexes does not explain the experiences of transsexuals. Secondly it shows that the behavioural traits that are shown by men and women are seriously affected by social factors. Thus to support this, one might put together a Quinean Argument from Ontological Commitment to show that gender does
Each approach shifted research and theory on gender in interactions and institutions, and challenged the notion that gender is static. The two approaches scrutinize the social construction of gender, biological determinism created
The creation of gender expectations by society creates a restricting definition of gender roles and sexuality that vary from culture to culture. Society created the role of gender and created an emphasis on the differences between the two genders. Alma Gottlieb states: “biological inevitability of the sex organs comes to stand for a perceived inevitability of social roles, expectations, and meanings” (Gottlieb, 167). Sex is the scientific acknowledgment that men and women are biologically different; gender stems from society’s formation of roles assigned to each sex and the emphasis of the differences between the two sexes. The creation of meanings centers on the expectations of the roles each sex should fill; society creates cultural norms that perpetuate these creations.
An example of one’s... ... middle of paper ... ...egarded to be biologically attached to forming an individual’s gender and sexuality in the western world, if multiple sociologists, cultures and individuals prove this to be false? Examples of theories from Cooley and Goffman highlight how easily transferrable the ideals relate to humans being influenced by the largest factor of all; socialisation. They describe separately how the gender of an individual is developed, not assigned to them through their sex and of sexuality not set in heterosexual tendencies. Views of gender and sexuality through different cultures help to further cement the outlook of characteristics being social implemented regardless of sex. While socialisation theories have been at the fore front of describing an ever changing society, biological determinism provides a little amount of truth and gives few answers to describing such occurrences.
Whereas, Devor focuses mainly on the idea that gender behavior is portrayed mainly among two different categories: masculinity and femininity, the expectation that society has put upon male and female disregarding any biological traits. Furthermore, both could agree with the idea that society has an effect on how an individual should act based on their gender. Yet, additionally Devor would most likely disagree with Blum regarding the assumption that a biological factor is involved in this following case, but I reside on Blum’s case. Although society is indeed one of the major contributions as to how one should act, as Devor states, biology is somewhat like a foundation that leads to how one should behave as they grow and acknowledge their gender difference as well, residing on Blum’s argument. Aaron Devor’s argument reflects completely on the concept that society is the major development of how each gender should act placing them in two categories that configures which is which.
For instance, Kimmel explains that, “biological models assume that biological sex determines gender, that innate biological differences lead to behavioral differences, which in turn lead to social arrangements” (Kimmel 2013, 58). However, that is not true. According to anthropologist Margaret Mead, “sex differences are not ‘something deeply biological,’ but rather are learned and, once learned, become part of the ideology that continues to perpetuate them” (Kimmel 2013, 60). Basically, Mead is saying that sex roles and behavior vary from culture to culture. As a result, gender is developed primarily by socialization or based on one’s cultural environment.
According to Mary K. Whelan, a Doctor of Anthropology focusing on gender studies, sex and gender are different. She states, “Western conflation of sex and gender can lead to the impression that biology, and not culture, is responsible for defining gender roles. This is clearly not the case.”. She continues with, “Gender, like kinship, does have a biological referent, but beyond a universal recognition of male and female "packages," different cultures have chosen to associate very different behaviors, interactions, and statuses with men and women. Gender categories are arbitrary constructions of culture, and consequently, gender-appropriate behaviors vary widely from culture to culture.” (23).
While the terms “gender” and “sex” are often used interchangeably, the two words have significantly different definitions. One could argue that sex refers to biological essentialism and the idea that we are who we are because of our genetic material. On the other hand, gender is associated with the social constructionist theory, which argues that the way we are is dependent on our race, class, and sexuality. Because each person is different in their race, class, and sexuality, their gender becomes socially constructed. To argue that gender is not socially constructed would be to say that all people, for example, that are biologically female have the same goals.
Gender, sex, gender roles, masculine, and feminine; these are all things that can be shaped by society. Your gender roles can change, but not your sex; that is given at birth. If gender is shaped a certain way, then that changes us to fit those societal norms of gender roles, masculinity and femininity, patriarchy, and how to maintain this gender order. Sex is based on the biological features of a human to say if they are male or female. While gender is more affected by the social and cultural expectations to say whether you are male or female.
There is an ongoing debate on the issue of gender and some scholars, present gender as being similar to sex. However, according to Butler (270) defines sex as the state of being either biologically female or male; with this definition, Butler refutes the traditional binary opposition amid biological sexes, holding that the conception of binary biological sex is a product of social construction. On the other hand, gender is defined as the behavioral, psychological, cultural traits that are traditionally associated with the binary conception of biological sexes that is either male or female. In the traditional setting, gender or rather gender identity was believed to be a direct expression of an individual’s biological sex, but Butler refuted this assumption