Redford’s concept of democratic morality as a cornerstone of the public organization is befitting when analyzing the indoctrination of ethical standards, especially in governmental bureaucracy. As governmental entities compelled to uphold democracy, their legitimacy is derived from a democracy and they are therefore compelled to embrace it (Denhardt, 2007). The standards held by these organizations are derived from democratic rule, perhaps more so in the form of representative bureaucracy. It functions in such a way, that our views and agendas are to be legislated through our elected officials, and then enacted in law. It is only natural that citizens should expect society’s morals, values, and ethical standard to be expressed in our public organizations.
While distinct character traits, these virtues often overlap as they influence the excellency of a citizen. When these traits are absent, it impedes the success of the democracy. In order for a citizen to be law abiding, they must freely obey the law of the state, thereby maintaining social order and a harmonious society. Next, a responsible citizen will act with civility when engaging in political discussion. On the basis that citizens’ mutual deliberation and reflection will properly inform their public policy decisions and solutions to problems, citizens must being able to speak and to listen to one another with openness or the requisite discourse of viable democracy collapses as well as a free society.
I will also address how they manifest in the political community, namely in their application to the market, and in the social services provided by the state. I intend to illustrate that an absolute of either of these forms of liberty is counter-productive to achieving freedom for the greatest number of people; therefore a balance of positive and negative liberty must be maintained so that individual liberty does not impede upon collective equality. John Locke used the idea of the “state of nature” to illustrate that when we were absolutely free from the state we were unable to settle disputes, therefore we needed government to bring order and protect life, liberty, and property (Mintz, Close, and Croci 53). The need for such protection can be clearly seen in Somalia which without an effective government has caused its citizens to live in constant fear of violence (29). Since it has been established that some form of government is needed for societal organization, the question of how liberty is most fully recognized becomes tied to what degree governments should intervene in the lives of its citizens.
Doing so, it would enable private individuals to identify and discuss societal problems thus finding a way to influence political action. The idea of forming a public body was important to Habermas because it separated the state from the work place, and rejected hierarchy (Habermas 1974, p.49). It promised access to autonomy, inclusivity, and a place to discuss common concerns. Habermas believed that there is a connection between the public sphere and the ideals of a democratic society. In order to have a functioning democratic society, al... ... middle of paper ... ...cal leaders not only carry additional power, but as well as more importance over its citizens.
This paper is about how our government forms and decides to create public policy through the interaction of the branches, the influence of political parties, and the effects of media. So what is public policy? Public policy is the action taken by the government to make changes for the better. As the paper goes on one will learn about this even further throughout it. When dealing with public policy and how it is created one must know how the idea is even brought up and put into motion.
In fact, the main difference between public and private personnel administration is the political context and the intervention of politicians and their supporters in decisions affecting public employees. Efficiency, on the other hand, is the practice of basing appointments on ability and performance, rather than politics. The individual rights of employees are often preserved by national and regional laws, such as the Constitution in the United States; merit systems; and collective bargaining systems, if applicable. Social equity guarantees that groups that cannot compete fairly are given preferences in job selection and promotion decisions.
However, when one citizen among the people stands out, it can be a positive aspect towards public service. As stated in The History of Thucydides, "when a citizen is in any way distinguished, he is preferred to the public service, not as a matter of privilege, but as the reward of merit" (Benjamin Jowett). A citizen that is different from the rest should not be taken as beneficial towards public service, but as a gift of excellence. A democracy allows citizens to have this ability. In addition, a government under democratic rule consists of laws that create an equity among citizens.
Threats of force and coercion, and deception and fraud, must be excluded as they impede on security and sustainability for a sociopolitical group’s collectivist mindsets of equitable power dynamics (235). As a result, when justice as fairness is fully realized in a well-ordered society, the value of full autonomy is realized. In order to be cooperating members, people have the powers of reason, thought, and judgement, and two moral powers: a capacity for a sense of justice and a capacity for a conception of the good (233). They also have the responsibility to strive towards what’s valuable in human life (244). I presume these granted powers would allow individuals to freely live their life and strive towards maximum
Despite the euphoric image that Becker creates for democracy he understands that although grandiose in theory, is highly reliant on the present condition of the citizens. He states that they must be “capable of managing their own affairs” (152). However, Becker provides an enumeration for this rhetoric. In order for democracy to survive, Becker recognizes that certain conditions need to be present, mobility, necessity for economic security, ease of communication and industrial prosperity. (151-152).
One of the main arguments presented by Crick in In Defence of Politics is that politics is a realistic good necessary for well-organized governance. From my experiences in the field, I understand that democracy allows for differing interests and views to be heard in a diplomatic manner. While democracy elicits diverging ideas and opinions for people, citizens in a democratic state still understand their interests are often served through democratic values and equal representation in government affairs. Political representatives must be accountable to the masses for their actions and decisions in order for the rule of law to be obligatory. Democracy does not discriminate against ideology or party affiliation.