Some of the early leaders in this field of study where people such as B.F. Skinner and Edward Thorndike. These two gentleman played a major role in the concept of operant conditioning, such as preforming experiments of positive and negative behavior and instrumental behavior. These experiments may involve rats pressing a button in order to get food. According to (Dragoi and Staddon, 1999, P.4), operant behavior is influenced by situations that happened in the past. Operant behavior basically studies how something reacts when given something or has something taken away and its reflex through adaption.
Ivan Pavlov was an influential physiologist, who accidently discovered what’s known as classical conditioning. (King, 2016) When he was conducting an experiment on a dog, in an effort to learn about the digestive system, he noticed that the dog would salivate when meat powder was placed in his mouth. Eventually he noticed that the dog would start to salivate, even when the meat powder was absent. He discovered that all of the stimuli that caused the dog to salivate had a connection to the meat powder. Curious as to why this occurred, he observed the dog’s behavior, and noticed that the dog’s behavior was both learned and unlearned.
John Watson followed up Pavlov with an experiment known as “Little Albert” that would test whether or not classical conditioning could be applied to humans (C). The combination of the two experiments left behind a set of principles and methods that allow us to apply classical conditioning to studies today. In Pavlov’s study of digestion in dogs, he began to recognize that the lab dogs would salivate before being given their food. He was curious about his observation and began to pursue further investigation. Paying closer attention, Pavlov noticed that the dogs would begin salivating when the research assistants entered the lab to feed the dogs (A).
He noticed that his dogs behaviors were changing. At first they would salivate with just the food. The more he worked with them, the more their behavior changed until he noticed that they would salivate whenever he or his assistant would come in the room with or without food. He then began experiments with neutral stimuli such as bells and whistles. The dogs would associate food with the bells.
To examine this Pavlov rang a bell prior to giving the dog the unconditioned stimulus (food). After numerous repetitions of this order the dog began to salivate to a bell alone without any food in front of it. This, the bell is known as a conditioned stimulus because it would not ordinarily warrant such a response. The salivation to the conditioned stimulus is known as a conditioned response. Later the stimulus ... ... middle of paper ... ...tioned responses are if someone hits your kneecap you will automatically jerk your leg.
After a while, he noticed that the dogs’ salivated even before he gave them food; if the dogs’ saw the white lab coat, put in the harness, hear the sound of a buzzer, or the ringing of a bell. He then concluded that these dogs’ were learning from the environment, which at first, they thought was an annoyance, leading Pavlov to the classical conditioning process - which says that we learn through pairings and association (Ryan, G. (2013) Lectures on Learning. Personal Collection of G. Ryan, Suffolk County Community College, Brentwood NY). Another advocate of behaviorism was John B. Watson, who wanted to demonstrate that even sophisticated behaviors such as emotion are subject to classical conditioning. Watson conducted a study known as “Little Albert,” where he taught the infant to fear the white rat, which was originally a neutral stimulus.
Pavlov` main focus was the study of the digestive glands of dogs when he stumbled across the function of saliva in dogs. He found that dogs salivate involuntarily whenever food is placed in front of them. Pavlov began to see conditioned reflexes which are reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the association between a stimulus and response. In Pavlov 's experiment he used a bell as a neutral stimulus and rang the bell everytime he gave the dog food. The food is the unconditioned stimulus and the dog 's saliva is the unconditioned response.
He fed his dog in a pattern, every time he fed his dog he rang a bell. Eventually the dog associated the bell with food and would begin to salivate just on hearing the bell. Thetis the original experiment proving classical conditioning. What is conditioned stimulus? A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairings
1.1.3 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning is an other important theory to explain motivation. It is develeoped by Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936). The discovery of this theory was by accedent wheile doing research on the effect of dog salivation on digestion. Pavlov obseved that sometimes the dog start slavate before the food was represented to them and other times the approaching of the experimenter was enough to salivate (Ellen Pastorino and Sussan 2012). In his experiment Pavlov paired the giving of food with the ringing of bell.
Another example of classical conditioning is when Pavlov had studied dogs that salivated when they tasted food. He called the food the “unconditioned stimulus and the salivation the unconditioned response” (McLeod). This was unconditioned because salivating was a natural response to the food. Pavlov then rang a bell before the food was presented to the dogs. Eventually, the dogs associated the sound of a bell with food.