The Ministry of Agriculture estimates that the vineyard plantation surface in Spain covers 954 378 hectares, and that nearly 25 000 people are employed in the sector. This means that Spain is the country with the largest vineyard area of the European Union and the world. The Spanish vineyard represents nearly 30% of the total European surface and 13.4% of the world surface. Spain has 90 areas of production of quality wines with a Protected Designation of Origin. In Spain, the development P.D.O.
Not until the end of Prohibition in 1933 did the American wine industry take off on a large scale. America has now become the fourth largest producer in the world behind Italy, France, and Spain. The wine market consists of still wine, sparkling wine, and vermouth. Since the 1970’s, per capita consumption in the United States has grown from 1.3 to 2.7 gallons in 2003. Retail wine sales in the U.S. were a record 21.1 billion.
Demand has increased over 20% each year for the last 5 years. California produces about 300,000 gallons of oil each year about half of that is sold each year as the gourmet treat classified as extra-virgin and sold from $10 to $40 per half-liter. Among global producers, Spain leads with more than 40% of world production, followed by Italy and Greece. Much of the Spanish crop is exported to Italy, where it is both consumed and repackaged for sale abroad as Italian olive oil. Different Grades Of Olive Oil Extra-virgin olive oil comes from the first pressing of the olives, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste.
Spain treasures the largest olive-tree plantation of the world. Over 300 million olive trees, which occupy more than 2.5 million hectares, spread over 34 provinces over the country, taking preponderance its presence in the southern and eastern half of the peninsula. This makes Spain the largest producer and exporter of olive oil, representing more than half of EU production and 40% of the world’s production. This gives an enormous economic asset and a great social, environmental, cultural and public health value. Spain is the leading producer of olives in the world and, therefore, in the obtainment of virgin olive oil In Spain there are 32 protected designations of origin (PDO) of virgin and extra olive oil, that care for the quality of their oils and mark cultivation, collection, processing, bottling and labeling procedures.
The global Pharmaceutical sector is worth US$300 billion and this is expected to rise to US$400 billion within three years. With 10 largest drugs companies controlling over one-third of the market, several have sales of more than US$10 billion a year and profit margins of about 30%. Of the top 10 six are based in the United States and four in Europe. It is predicted that North and South America, Europe and Japan will continue to account for a full 85% of the global pharmaceuticals market well into the 21st century. (wikipedia, 2014) In 2006, the US contributed 52 per cent of the pharmaceutical sector's growth, while the seven emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, Mexico and Turkey referred to as “pharmerging” contributed 16 per cent combined.
In many countries, particularly developing and emerging economies, domestic tourism accounts for a significant share of the sector’s income, representing close to 50% or more of the total in many advanced economies. Tourism, the third largest foreign exchange earner for India, contributed nearly 6.88% in the countries’ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012-13 and is ranked 12th globally in terms of its tourism and trade’s contribution to GDP. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) predicts this ranking to come down to 4th by the year 2025. For a country with 30 world heritage sites, 10 bio-geographical zones and 26 biotic provinces, the tourism industry has an immense potential to enhance tourist flow and accelerate economic growth while creating multifold job opportunities. The country witnessed USD 21.07 billion in Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEEs) through the tourism sector during
The Saudi Arabian government invests about 1,125 billion dollars to cater to its energy needs between now and 2018 (Alaindroos & He, 2012). In the year 2009 alone, the country used about 100 million barrels of oil to produce energy and this implies that they consume one quarter of all their oil in domestic uses. The demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia is estimated to increase by 70 GW in the next twenty years (Saudi Arabia Country Profile, 2013). The current dependence on unsustainable energy sources has a different effect on the environment due to gases they emit into the atmosphere. If the country fully implements the use of sustainable sources of energy, it will help to expand the use of energy for security purposes.
Iranian petrochemical output was 12.5 million metric tones in 2001. A number of other countries in the region, including the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and Egypt, have either completed major petrochemical projects or are planning them. SABIC, created 24 years ago to add value to Saudi Arabia's massive hydrocarbon resources, has grown into one of the world's largest and lowest-cost petrochemical producers, with more than 25 million m.t./year of capacity, almost all of which is joint ventures. SABIC vice chairman and managing director Mohamed H. Al-Mady says that the company will expand to keep pace with projected petrochemical demand growth of 5%-10%/year, adding a further 13 million m.t./year of new capacity by 2010. Access to cheap raw materials gives Sabic a big cost benefit over its competition.
This shade house effect reduces evapo transpiration rates and raises humidity, which facilitates a secondary food production system by introducing other plant species. The global production of date fruits is about 5.4 mn metric tons per year. The five largest producers are Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, & Iraq. Approximately, 93% of dates gathered in the country are consumed within. Date palm is a traditional crop and in current decades, has gained taking in 40 countries including US, South Africa, and Australia.
In 1890, the Royal Dutch Company was created to produce and refine oil as Shell Transport and Trading focused on the marketing and transportation side of the market. They merged in 1907 to form Royal Dutch Shell. In the literary work, “Earliest Days of Petroleum Industry in Indonesia,” it states that at this time “total production increased to 62,000 barrels per day, of which 95 percent was produced by Royal Dutch Shell.” By the turn of the century, there were about twenty companies exploring, if not already producing, oil in Indonesia. However, Royal Dutch Shell and the U.S. companies Stanvac and Caltex dominated the industry in Indonesia in the first half of the twentieth century. The major oil fields included Kruka and Ledok in East Java, Kampong Minyak and Sumpal in South Sumatra, and Perlak in North Sumatra.