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Essay On Nozzle

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Nozzle

A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. In nozzle velocity of fluid increases on the expense of its pressure energy with decreasing pressure.

Nozzle have many types and each of them has special uses. The nozzle types are high velocity, propelling, jet, magnetic, spray, vacuum and shaping.

High velocity:

Frequently, the goal of a nozzle is to increase the kinetic energy of the flowing medium at the expense of its pressure and internal energy.
Nozzles can be described as convergent (narrowing
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If the nozzle pressure ratio is high enough, then the flow will reach sonic velocity at the narrowest point (i.e. the nozzle throat). In this situation, the nozzle is said to be choked.
Increasing the nozzle pressure ratio further will not increase the throat Mach number above one. Downstream (i.e. external to the nozzle) the flow is free to expand to supersonic velocities; however Mach 1 can be a very high speed for a hot gas because the speed of sound varies as the square root of absolute temperature. This fact is used extensively in rocketry where hypersonic flows are required and where propellant mixtures are deliberately chosen to further increase the sonic
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Diffusers are used to slow the fluid's velocity with increasing pressure.

Diffusion of innovations

Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread. Everett Rogers, a professor of communication studies, popularized the theory in his book Diffusion of Innovations; the book was first published in 1962, and is now in its fifth edition (2003).[1] Rogers argues that diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated over time among the participants in a social system. The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span multiple
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