Essay On Noise Pollution

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Noise pollution is considered one of the main problems in urban areas; moreover, excessive noise has been marked as one of the major pollutants in the work and living space (1)(2). Both urban and suburban areas have become increasingly noisy environments and the threshold limits are continually being exceeded. There can be negative auditory and extra-auditory health effects (3)(4). In order to fully understand the effects of noise one must first look into how we perceive it. The Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary defines hearing as, “the act or power of apprehending sound” they further state that hearing is performed when sound waves are funneled from the outer ear through the ear canal to the ear drum, which causes a thin membrane to vibrate (5). Subsequently, these vibrations are transported through tiny bones, located in the middle ear, to the fluid of the inner ear. The vibrations stimulate hair cells, which convert these pulsations into electrical nerve currents. The currents are transported to the brain’s auditory center via the hearing nerve and thereby identified and interpreted as sound (5). It is known that prolonged and continuous exposure to noise at high intensity causes NIHL (Noise Induced Hearing Loss) with damage of the hair cells of the inner ear as well as a hearing threshold shift and an impairment of communication (1). Although these auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are still unclear. There are new emerging links between excessive noise exposure and CVD (cardiovascular disease) that could have serious effects on public health in noisy environments. Cardiovascular disease, manifested as hypertension, myocardial infarction, ischem... ... middle of paper ... ...ects that uses small antennae vibrations to measure sound (16). Although the fly has an open circulatory system, the development of the circulatory and the auditory system of lies are very similar (17). In fact, the Society for Development Biology states that, “With the exception of the central nervous system, most of the structures of the adult fly develop during the larval period and take their final form during eclosion, the act of emerging from the pupal case”(18). This makes Drosophila a good model organism to study the effects of excessive noise on prenatal flies, as their development is similar to human’s, when regarding the cardiovascular system and auditory system (19). Thus, Drosophila melanogaster serves as a model organism for both auditory and cardiovascular systems in humans for these reasons drosophila was selected as the model organism.

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