Essay On Negative Externalities

2770 Words12 Pages
Introduction: Externality is defined as, the effect (cost or benefit) by a party to another party who is not given the choice between cost and the benefit. Externalities may be positive or negative. Positive externalities are those in which the other party gets the benefit by the work of first party. Negative externalities are those in which the second party has to pay the cost of an action done by the first party. We will be discussing negative externalities. A classic example of negative externality is pollution. The polluter keeps on having benefit through his business and doesn’t bother to think about the waste material he is producing for getting yield. This waste material affects the public negatively because its side effects have…show more content…
All of these are potential sources of increasing pollutants in the atmosphere. Urbanization and population growth causes an increase in residential burning of fuel, industrial effluents along with vehicular emission also releases pollutants in the atmosphere. Year-long air quality study showed that the concentration of particulate matter (TSP) highest in the city Lahore. In this study, aerosols samples of PM2.5 and PM10 from January 27 to January 28 were collected every sixth day. Samplers (Medium Volume Air) namely, URG Corporation, North Carolina, URG-3000 and Chapel Hill were used for 24 hours with 32 and 161PM air flow rates. Particulate matter was collected on fiber filters of quartz and which was then analyzed through the process of burning. The experimentation was done on the building in the University of Engineering and technology, Lahore. It was observed that there is a significantly higher concentration of pollutant in the atmosphere of Lahore. Even the elements which are “trace” in nature and are thought to be in lower concentrations are also abnormally in high concentration in the atmosphere of Lahore. PM¬10 contains elements like Pb which is 1.3% and Zn which is 3.3%.EPA doesn’t give any air quality guidelines for air concentrations of metals like Zn whose maximum daily concentration increases 61µgm-3. However, WHO (World Health Organization) does give some…show more content…
ASSESSMENT OF Cd, Ni, Cu, AND Pb POLLUTION IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN During last few decades, there is an increase in the expansion and transportation in Lahore. The waste stream in Pakistan has been increased by a percentage of 120 from 1980-1996. A total waste of 16.2Tg was generated in 1995. Chaney (1980) told that using sewage sludge in place of fertilizers resulted in high concentration of heavy metal in the soil and hence a higher concentration in the food. The intensity of hazard is dependent upon the amount of contaminated water used to irrigate land. The study was conducted inside spots and surrounding areas of the city Lahore. Being a megacity, Lahore has no. of pollutant sources like industry, fossil fuel burning and transportation vehicles etc. around the city, municipal sludge and sewage water is used to irrigate 23% of the total agricultural land. The concentration of heavy metals was determined in the blood of normal people and cancer patients. Four population groups were taken from the control group and two population groups were taken from the cancer patients. Thirteen samples of soil were taken from different sources (spots). Vegetables like tomato, lettuce and wheat were also taken and all of these samples were subjected to the process of digestion. For digestion, reagents of analytical were taken and doubly ionized water was used for rinsing apparatus. It was observed that the concentration of metals like cadmium, nickel, copper and lead is higher in the blood
Open Document