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Essay On Microclimates

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Microclimates nurture wide varieties of plants and animals. Preivously it was established that microclimate is important to plant for different activities like germination, growth and reproduction.Necessary to plant species for germination, growth and ecological processes, such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration, nutrient cycling (Rosenberg et al., 1983). Biotic and abiotic process rates are effected by soil temperature and moisture, such as nutrient availability, soil carbon sequestratio, and microbial activity (Fisher and Binkley, 2000). Active microbes and invertebrates along with high temperature and moisture, can also lead to a faster litter decomposition and thus enhance vegetation (Godefroid et al., 2006).
The most important thing in protection and management of habitats and wildlife is vegetation (Ahmad et al., 2012). With the rapid shifting in distribution of species and wide-ranging resulting from ongoing global environmental change, it is probable that in few decades few plant communities will completely disappear and appearance of entirely novel communities will occur (Jennings et al., 2009).
The change of environemetnal conditions may lead to either growth or reduction in the number of species and to changes in floral complosition. (Zielinska, 2007). One of the most important major factors that defines stability and efficient functioning of forest ecosystem is diversity that is required to maintain biodiversity for forest management (Polykov et al., 2008).One the other hand major threat to biodiversity is habitat loss (Mac Donald, 2003) Therefore it is the basic need to assess biodiversity to determine the effects (Agosti et al., 2000). Criteria required to maintain health forest ecosyste...

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...tic conditions measured in localized areas near earth’s surface makes the microclimate (Geiger, 1965). Shirley (1929, 1945) stresses that microclimate is major determinant of all the processes in plant and animal species. Significance of microclimate in influencing ecological processes has gained lot of importance and lead ecological research to new dimensions (Perry, 1994).
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
(a) Flora Species density and diversity are affected by micro climatic variation.
(b) Anthropogenic activities affect the vegetation cover.
1.5 OBJECTIVES
(a) To assess the effect of micro climatic variation on flora species diversity and density.
(b) To study the effect of anthropogenic activities on vegetation cover.
(C) To compare the selected baseline (2009) with the present scenario to extrapolate the modification trends for future management of flora diversity and densities.
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