Essay On Leptospirosis

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Leptospirosis is a major tropical disease which can be seen endemic in most of the tropical and subtropical countries affecting human populations. Leptospira is a genus of spirochetes and is known to cause leptospirosis. This genus family includes organisms and its variants with a lifestyle falling in the range of invasive pathogens to aquatic saprophytes. These Leptospira species has got adapted to various climatic conditions and environmental factors, thereby, acquiring a large genome and a very complex outer membrane. The outer membrane has got several proteins and features that are unique among these bacteria. These organisms can be able to shed through urinal excretions of the host and they can even survive in water, soil and human body! They invade human body through cut wounds, broken and/or the exposed skin, mucosal layers and so on. The mode and mechanism of infection of these organisms remained a mystery so far. However, more recently in human host, the host adaptability and immune responsiveness of a variant of leptospira sp., “L. interrogans” to host innate immunity was elucidated in infection or animal models although not very clear. A better and deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these species in response to host’s natural or the innate immunity is obligatory to learn the nature of early leptospirosis.
“Leptospirosis” is one of the zoonotic diseases which is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. These are transmitted from reservoir hosts (especially rodents) to humans via water contaminated by infected animals. This disease can be seen mostly in tropical and subtropical countries and has a momentous impact on public health throughout the developing world. This genus family ...

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...-membrane outer membrane proteins have lagged behind the studies of lipoproteins due to their aberrant behavior by Triton X-114 detergent fractionation. Due to this reason, trans-membrane outer membrane proteins can be best characterized by assessing membrane integration as well as surface exposure. Not surprisingly, some of the outer membrane proteins that are involved in mediating host–pathogen interactions are strongly regulated by the conditions that are found in mammalian host tissues. For instance, the leptospiral immunoglobulin-like repeat proteins are dramatically induced by the osmolarity and they would mediate the interactions with host extracellular matrix proteins. Development of latest molecular tools in genetics is making it possible to understand the roles of these and several other outer membrane proteins in the mechanism of leptospiral pathogenesis.
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