Essay On Knee Joint

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INTRODUCTION Knee joint is complex structure in human body which undergoes critical loading simultaneously while performing different physical activities such as walking, running, in rotational motion, sitting, static positions etc. what we used to do in our day to day life. Major parts in a knee joint are femur, tibia, patella and meniscus. It has two articulation components one is in between tibia and femur and another in between femur and patella. Knee joint is a pivot hinge joint. It permits extension and flexion of leg with that rotation in both internal as well as external part. It‘s articular bodies are lateral and medial condyle were patella is present in the posterior region in between the lateral and medial condyle surfaces. Articular capsule of knee joints are the fibrous membrane and synovial membranes. Synovial membranes are those which are been attached near the cartilage of both tibia and femur. Cartilage is elastic thin tissue that acts as protection guard for bone and makes the joint surfaces. In knee joint there are two types of cartilages joint one is fibrous cartilage and other as hyaline cartilage. Fibrous cartilage has resistance to high pressure and has high tensile strength. A meniscus is the articular disk present in the knee joint, having two components i.e. medial and lateral meniscus. Knee Prosthesis: In the field of medicine prosthesis is defined as an artificial device which is replaced in the position of any defective body part or when any body part went missing because of trauma, disease or any congenital condition. Mainly two types of prosthesis are being used in i.e. craniofacial and somato (body). Craniofacial prosthesis is of two types i.e. extra oral prosthesis and intra prosthesis where as so... ... middle of paper ... ...ular Metal. It contains pores, the size of which makes this material very good for bone in-growth. In addition, Trabecular Metal has an elastic nature which aids bone remodeling. 6. Polyethylene: The tibial and patellar components in knee replacements are made of polyethylene. Wear is less of a problem in knee implants as the bearing surfaces are flatter and do not result in the same kind of wear. The use of Ultra Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene (UHXLPE) or Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) reduces even the minimal wear enabling the knee implants to last for a much longer time. Material Density Elastic Modulus Cobalt-Chrome alloy ~8.5 g.cm^-3 7-30 316L Stainless Steel 8.0 g.cm^-3 230 CP Titanium 4.51 g.cm^-3 200 Ti6Al4V 4.40 g.cm^-3 106 Materials and method 1. Tools used : • CAD software • PRO/E modeling • ANSYS (2008,2010,2012) •

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