I was fortunate to have a nurse in my family, who was willing to share her experiences as a nurse with me. The nurse that I had the privilege of interviewing was my aunt, Margaret M. Bartholomae. My aunt began her educational career at William Rainey Harper College, where she received her associate’s degree in nursing. Afterward, she passed the NCLEX, and was able to practice nursing. However, as she progressed in her career she realized the importance of a more extensive education.
“At the School of Nursing in University of Colorado, Watson is the Murchinson-Scoville Chair in Caring Science and also a Professor in Nursing. She is the founder of the Colorado’s Center for Human Caring (McEwen and Willis, 2007, p. 191).” She is also affiliated to the American Academy of Nursing and has received numerous honorary doctoral degrees and other honors both from the national and the international scene (McEwen and Willis, 2007, p. 191). Because of her theory of human caring, and her philosophies that shaped her opinions and insights, Jean Watson was able to publish a book explaining her theory. Today, her theory is being taught in schools. Nurses from the different parts of the globe study her thoughts and insights (McEwen and Willis, 2007, p. 191).
Dr. Jean Watson is a scholar, nurse, humanitarian and more. She is currently a professor at the University Of Colorado Denver School Of Nursing and has many distinguished titles such as Dean of nursing at the University Health Science Center as well as president of the National League of Nursing. She has earned her degrees, both graduate and undergraduate, in Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing and has excelled to the point of receiving various prestigious awards and writing her own award winning books. Dr. Jean Watson based her theory on caring for the individual and their families. She believed that she should be the base of the caring and healing environment and that nursing entailed the requirement offering loving, nurturing care to all her patients.
Tiaki feels Orem’s theory is efficient because this theory will help patients to learn the tasks they are unable to do from the nurses, teaching them how to care for themselves (2008). The purpose of this paper is to describe Orem’s historical background, describe her self-care theory, and describe how her theory can be applied into nursing today. The infamous nursing pioneer, Dorothea Elizabeth Orem, set the bar for nurses worldwide. She was born and raised in Baltimore, Maryland, where she graduated from high school in 1931. While in college, she pursued her Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing Education and she also earned her Masters of Science in Nursing Education.
In 1957, she moved to Washington, D.C. and worked as a consultant to the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. From 1958 to 1960, she worked on a project to improve practical nurse training. This project stimulated her to identify the condition or circumstances under which a decision is made that nursing care is needed. The condition that indicates the nursing assistance is the inability of persons to continuously provide for themselves the amount and quality of required self-care because of situations of personal health. The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory was developed as a result of Orem’s working toward her goal of improving the quality of nursing in general hospitals in Indiana (Alligood, 2014, p.
Origin of Watson’s Theory Watson conceived her Theory of Human Caring while she was teaching at the University of Colorado in 1975 to 1979 (Conway et al, 2011). It evolved from her personal views on nursing and merged with her learning and experience from her doctoral studies in education, clinical and social psychology. With the publication of her first book, Jean Watson developed the initial ideas of her theory and came up with 10 “carative” factors. Her actual theory was published in 1985, after which she further developed the corresponding nursing curriculum. In those years, Watson also extensively traveled in Asia and Australia while practiced.
During the theorist’s doctoral education, the concept of caring went to the foreground of her professional endeavors and since then, caring has turn out to be the emphases of her research. Swanson’s theory of caring was developed inductively by observing or living through phenomena and then reaching definite conclusions that led to the development of a middle range theory of caring with five distinct caring processes: knowing, being with, doing for, enabling, and maintaining belief (Peterson & Bredow, 2013). Swanson (1991), indicated that she drew on diverse philosophical and theoretical sources to develop her theory of caring. She also accredited several nurse researchers for shaping her beliefs about caring. She recognizes Dr. Jacqueline Fawcett for aiding in her understanding of the distinctive role of nursing in caring for others.
During the 1970s, Sister Callista Roy was a young graduate student in the midst of developing a new theoretical framework for nursing practice. Her experiences and studies led her to form the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM). Roy’s model identifies people as adaptive systems in a holistic manner. The essential elements of her model include adaptation, the person, the environment, health, and the goal of nursing (Roy, 2009). Modes of adaptation are further broken down into physiological and psychological needs.
Implementing this theory into the practice of todays nurse is not an unrealistic task as it has been taking place one one level or another for many years. Because modern nurses are faced with providing care to individuals, families, groups and communities of people, educating and expecting them to use SRT will provide better patient outcomes overall. Perhaps the practice of wanting the very best for patients is actually an inherent quality of nurses. Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007) support and argue that self-regulation is a homeostatic process such as maintaining a constant body temperature and that with the proper gauges/resources this can be obtained.
She first developed an interest in nursing during World War I because she felt an inner need to help wounded and sick soldiers (“Virginia Avenue Henderson – the mother,” 1996). She started her nursing career in 1918 at the US Army School of Nursing and later became a nursing instructor at the Norfolk Protestant Hospital in Virginia (Smith, 1997). Henderson received her education during the empiricist era of nursing, which focused on needs however, she felt her theoretical ideas developed and advanced throughout her nursing career and experiences in the medical surgical unit. This is where she realized the importance of helping the patient return to independence so that recovery can continue after hospitalization. Henderson became familiar first with physiological principals while obtaining her graduate education.