They reduce and select the information being attended to and processed, in response to high time pressure and reduced cognitive capacity” (Flin, 2004, pg 42). Flin has said so much about stress and decision making in this little space. To have a better understanding, we are going to elaborate in this essay and analyze the evidence that there is an effect of stress upon thinking and decision making ability. Stress can be defined in many different ways, but in relation to decision making, stress may be best defined from a scientific view describing the thought process of the brain. When the sensory organs perceive information, they send it to the thalamus of the brain, which deals with sensory perceptions.
Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, and McGorty (2004) conducted a meta-analytic review intending to determine the effects of high levels of stress on memory of eyewitnesses. It was argued that much of the confusion in determining the effect of stress on memory was because many studies do not actually push participants to a high enough stress level. This review excluded any studies that did not elevate participant's stress level to elicit a defensive response or activation mode of attention control. This defensive response as defined by Deffenbacher et al is characterized by a pronounced change in physiological measures of stress. These measures include increased heart rate, blood pressure and muscle tone (2004).
Two major components underlying fear conditioning are the amygdala and the hippocampus. The amygdala deals with the association formation, whereas the hippocampus deals with contextual fear conditioning. These findings are usually found from lesion, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. However, there are also other critical issues being researched on, such as: whether amygdala is the storage place for fear memory or what the accurate amygdala circuit that mediates fear conditioning is. Advancements in exploring underlying neural mechanisms can help to better learning and memory, and also help to understand the basis of fear and anxiety disorders.
Convergent Thinking. A type of critical thinking in which previously defined alternative solutions are evaluated to find a single correct solution, or one that has the highest probability of being effective (Guilford, 1967). It is the use of duplication of existing data and an adaptation of it to new situations in a sing... ... middle of paper ... ...ntegral to success, the novelty of exploring the dark side of this functional trait is that most would consider it inconceivable that program managers with the conscientiousness trait could have a dark side that could potentially impact their decision making and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, a number of studies suggest that excessively high levels of conscientiousness are associated with decrements in job performance (Le, Oh, Robbins, Ilies, Holland and Westrick, 2011; LaHuis, Martin and Avis, 2005). Specific shortcomings that are often found in employees with very high levels of conscientiousness include excessive attention to small details at the expense of larger project goals (Tett, 1998), as well as excessive rigidity in problem solving and lack of openness to alternative solutions (LePine, Colquitt, and Erez, 2000; Martocchio and Judge, 1997).
Today, cognitive psychologists know an extensive amount of information on our attention – our ability to divide our attention, our ability to selectively choose what we want to attend to and so on. It is agreed on that our cognitive load and resources are two of the influencing factors when studying how attention works. In a normal-functioning mind, studying these two aspects may be enough to understand how our attention operates, but cognitive psychologists must delve much deeper than this while studying the not so normal. Anxiety, for example, affects the mind in ways that go far beyond our cognitive resources and load. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, a relationship between arousal and performance exists.
These points need further attention because their presences have a great influence on the OLS estimates (Moller et al., 2005). The first group is regression outliers which sometimes are called vertical outliers (Rousseeuw and Van Zomeren, 1990). These outliers stand apart from the general pattern for the bulk of the data. Specifically, they are observations which are discrepant in terms of their values. Relatively large residuals finely characterized regression outliers.
Anxiety is common mental illness in the US, which Kim Krisberg talks about in her article “Anxiety: A Normal Response That Can Feel Overwhelming. The cause of anxiety is brought up in Peter Crostas’ article “What Causes Anxiety?” Crosta also explains the treatments for anxiety in his article, “What Are Treatments For Anxiety?” In Kim’s article she talks about anxiety and what it is, she states that it is a normal feeling we all experience at some point in our lives. She states how there is bad anxiety and good. The good normally keeps us motivated and even protects us in dangerous situations. The not so good anxiety is when your worry gets out of control and overwhelming.
‘Mass communication could become the basis for people’s view of the world’ (Lippman, 1922)4. This quote demonstrates that in the early 1900s scholars were concerned with media’s dominant ability to influence audiences. As new mediums have come into play, opinions on the matter have rarely changed. ‘Media effects’ refers to how powerful and influential the mass media is upon audiences in society and how this affects individuals patterns of thought and behaviour. It has been considerably argued that research evidence on the topic of media effects has resulted in concern and more recently research has tended to focus extensively on illustrating how the media can have damaging effects on people.
The use of EI was based on the belief that emotionally intelligent people regard their own emotions and the emotions of others as a basis in framing their relationships with other people (Mayer and Salovey, 1993, 1997). This quality can create a sensitive feeling that encourages individuals to consider other interests while resolving conflicts . In this situation, a win-win solution may become a priority in resolving the conflicts among individuals in order to satisfy everyone’s interests. (Mayer et al., 1999; Schutte et al., 2001) One of the most controversial concepts introduced in popular and academic psychology and management in the last decade is Emotional Intelligence (EI; Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2000. This paper investigates two important issues related to EI.
These effects are discussed in “Inside the Bullied Brain: The Alarming Neuroscience of Taunting”, an article written by Emily Anthes. Research mentioned in this article found that those with a history of mental abuse reported greater levels of depression and anxiety later on in life and also elicited lower scores on tests of verbal memory. While there are still a few areas that are a bit unclear about whether or not the problems that seem to be cause by verbal abuse aren’t cause by another factor, as well as the severity of the damage caused, the results that have been found so far certainly raise a few concerns. As researchers prepare to dive deeper into studies on the effects psychological abuse has on the brain later in life, it raises the question of the severity of an act often viewed as a rite of passage in most children’s lives (Anthes, 2010). One of the studies featured in the article focused on the effect of verbal abuse on levels of psychological emotional disorders such as depression, dissociation and anxiety as well as any significant alteration to the structure of the brain.