Following the Civil War and Reconstruction Eras, Americans began to set their eyes on other shores. With new technology and equipment such as the telegraph and the railroads, the United States had shrunk. No longer was the United States a vast expanse of uncharted territory, but instead, it was a conquered land with a growing population and growing cities. Imperialism was born out of this desire to look across oceans for more land and trade posts for America’s expanding population and economy. Following the Reconstruction Era, the United States debated imperialist policies based on economic, social, military, and political beliefs which ultimately propelled the country to achieving a dominating international reputation.
The rising of the market economy occurred between the end of the War of 1812 and the Civil War. It was a time of uprising for Americans of the United States. There were changes in the vast improvement in transportation, the growth of factories, and there were important developments of new technology that increased agricultural production. Americans advanced into new areas and produced an agricultural surplus that went to market farming. In the nineteenth century, manufacturing was the most important factor because it brought about industrialization.
In 1750 political liberalism, the enlightened age, Infrastructure, and the economic climate allowed Great Britain to seek new job opportunities and exploit new business ideas. In addition, literacy, public education and the middle class was rising immensely. Concepts like partnerships and selling shares were introduced during this time period. The process of the Industrial Revolution was rapid in Western Europe however, by the 1900 all of Europe was involved. Over all, the effects of the revolution changed the way materials are transported, how products are made, on a global basis.The Industrial Revolution was a critical turning point in European history because the changes made are integral in the modern age.
The industrializing America had needed new markets, raw materials, and overseas territories to compete with the burgeoning European colonial empires. The American Imperialism of the late 1800’s and early 1900’s was aggressive, an ordeal undertaken for the economic welfare of the nation.
In his book Mahan pointed out that Great Britain’s phenomenal growth as the world power was because of it’s unsurpassed naval power. America saw that in order to become a world power, it needed to expand it’s own navy. In order to maintain this new navy, America would also need to increase the number of harbors, refueling and repair stations, and trade ships around the globe. America also came to realize that the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans needed to be connected closer to home. This raised the demand for an isthmian canal.
This economic growth, also called the commercial revolution, helped to fuel the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century by “Providing large and expanding markets for European industries” (p. 409) The commercial revolution created the need for new technology to meet the demands of the new and ever changing markets created by the European expansion. The commercial revolution also “Contributed the large amounts of capital necessary to finance the construction of factories and machines for the industrial revolution.” (p. 409) The industrial revolution began in the late eighteenth century with the invention of the steam engine by James Watt. Thanks to the steam engine, people were now able to harness the power needed to run pumps, locomotives and eventually machines used in factories. “It (the steam engine) provided a means for harnessing and utilizing heat energy to furnish driving power for machines.” (p. 412) The British quickly moved to the forefront of the industrial revolution due to their investment in the coal and iron industries. England was also at the forefront of modern banking due to the large amounts of profit from commerce that the British experienced.
Nationalism was a prevalent ideology worldwide by the late 1800s, and as the industrial revolution allowed the United States to emerge as a world power at this time, there was an urge to compete with Europe in territory as well as technology. In the late 19th to early 20th century, “empire-building” allowed for U.S. capitalistic expansion, thinly veiled by nationalistic rhetoric of “the white man’s burden” and a moral necessity to extend American culture to “inferior” races. The discourse of imperialism necessitated an American national identity, which revolved around the virtues of capitalism and democracy, expressions of masculinity, and the supremacy of the white race. New technology and the advent of mass production had so radically altered U.S. culture that capitalism and consumer markets came to been seen as synonymous with progress and civilization (Lears 202). The rise of industry resulted in rapid urbanization and an influx of immigrants seeking work opportunities in the burgeoning U.S. economy.
This paper will argue that the industrial revolution allowed for the proliferation of fonts in the 19th century for two main reasons. First, there was an unprecedented need for new and eye-catching lettering to grab the attention of consumers a new variety of choices on the market. Secondly, the creation of new fonts was more affordable than ever due to the advancements in technology during the industrial revolution. Early Typography Humans have been using written language to communicate ideas with one another since as early as 3200 BCE in Mesopotamia. Since then, every great civilization has had a written language, each with its own unique characteristics.
(Gillon p.652) There is no refuting that the railroad companies transformed business operations and encouraged industrial expansion. The raw materials required for construction of the transcontinental railroad directly resulted in the expansion of the steel, lumber and stone industries. (Gillon p.652) The railroad stimulated growth in manufacturing and agriculture providing an efficient manner to ship raw materials and products throughout the country. Which in turn, increased consumerism and introduced t... ... middle of paper ... ...ich developed new corporations. (Gillon p.652) Many in the railroad industry and these newly developed corporations were accused of price fixing, providing illegal kick- backs and challenging government regulations.
But the decade of 1890s, the period between 1893 and1903 was a turning point in the history of United States, marked with the expansion of America for the first time outside its main land. Even though policy makers justified imperial expansion under the doctrine of manifest destiny, other causes, specifically the Depression of 1893, strategic military acquisition in order to improve US security, international competition, and the urge to control greater a part of the world in order to become the world power, actually encouraged the US to expand across its borders. This changed America’s traditional foreign policy from isolationist to interventionist that drew America into various international disputes at the risk of its own security. After 1865, facilitated by the development and expansion of railways, American industries grew rapidly and pushed its production beyond the domestic demands. This progress attracted immigrants from throughout the world increasing the population of the US rapidly.