Essay On Homeostasis

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The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system, being split into sympathetic pathways, which prepare the body for action and parasympathetic pathways which prepare the body for rest. This regulates the functions of the body and some of the muscles automatically. Sympathetic pathways change nerve activity during times of stress, exercise, low blood glucose levels, excitement or fear, due to the flight or fight response. These changes can have an effect on homeostasis by increasing heart rate, increasing blood flow, dilating pupils, sweating, releasing glycogen, increasing oxygen intake and diverting blood flow away from the gastrointestinal tract. The parasympathetic pathways are important for digesting and absorbing nutrients, slowing down and allowing a restoration process. Parasympathetic pathways work opposite sympathetic pathways, after a stressful situation they stop the release of adrenalin and allow the body to relax by reducing heart rate, slowing down breathing and contracting pupils. Homeostasis involves the whole body, but certain organs have larger roles in maintaining the balance. The liver and pancreas maintain suitable glucose levels in the blood, with kidneys removing metabolic waste products and maintaining suitable salt and water levels within the blood. The skin and liver help maintain body temperature with lungs controlling oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood and the blood itself transporting the nutrients and waste products around the body. For homeostasis to work the transport, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular system have to function together. Homeostasis mostly works through negative feedback, this is where the effectors response lessens the effects of the original stimulu... ... middle of paper ... ...on dioxide, within the body, affecting the pH balance of the blood. This will then affect proteins within the body, being known as enzymes, which can only function if their surrounding environment is in balance. Any alteration to this environment, will prevent the enzymes from functioning effectively. The extra heat produced during metabolic exchange, raises the body temperature again affecting the enzymes and heat is then removed by sweating. If the body isn’t kept hydrated during exercise, dehydration will occur, causing the blood to become concentrated. When the blood becomes concentrated, the cells no longer have enough water to function. If homeostasis is not maintained it will result in illness disease and even death, as without each functional part of the body working efficiently together, the body cannot operate at a sufficient level to maintain survival.

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