INTRODUCTION Since the first case of HIV infection in Malawi was reported in 1985, (Malawi Government, 2012. 2) approximately 1,100,000 people in Malawi are now living with HIV and AIDS, (UNAIDS. 2013). Malawi is already a country in the throws of socio-economic and developmental challenges. The increase of the number of people infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a world-wide problem and Malawi is experiencing this problem in pandemic proportions.
The Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system and eventually leads to its failure which allows opportunistic infections and cancers to be contracted. Today are 34 million HIV positive people worldwide. Of that, over 75 percent live in Africa. The area most infected with the HIV virus is the Sub-Saharan Region, and because of that the average life expectance in that area is less than 50 years of age. Prior to the influence of HIV that number was almost to 70 years of age.
In 2001, Sub-Saharan Africa recorded the highest number of deaths from HIV/AIDS, with 29.4 million people living with AIDS; 10 million young people and 3 million children. Among these, 12.2 million were women and 10.1 million men. In 2002, 3.5 million new infections were reported. From this backdrop, Kenyans were interviewed on their perceptions of sex and condom use within heterosexual relationships revealing that denial and silence played a major role in the escalation of the pandemic while gender differences, culture and power were perceived as negatively impacting negotiation of sex and condom use within Kenyan communities. Kagutui ka mucie gatihakagwo ageni.
REVIEW: HIV-1 and current research on antivirals, vaccines, and animal models Daniel Nelson Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents a major public health concern in developing and developed nations alike, with an estimated 35.3 million people worldwide living with HIV1.One-third of a century’s worth of research has helped change HIV from a steady and certain killer into a relatively manageable infection when treated with appropriate care. However, the HIV puzzle is far from solved. 2012 estimates suggest acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, caused by HIV) kills 1.6 million each year1. Reflecting the seriousness of the pandemic, the United States National Institutes of Health has made it a research priority, investing nearly three billion US dollars in HIV/AIDS research in 2013 alone—with similar amounts budgeted for future years2. Two major types of HIV exist: type 1 and type 2.
In addition African-American women are becoming infected at younger age compared to their white peers primarily through heterosexual contact. Hispanics present about 14 percent of the US population, about 40.322.930 people, and 20 percent of HIV-AIDS cases. The HIV infection rate among Native Americans is approximately one and a half time that of whites and they die from AIDS much faster than the whites due to late diagnosis. I share the opinion that the higher rate of HIV infection in the world stems in part from failure of personal responsibility and inattention to warnings from HIV/AIDS advocates, physicians and community organizations. However there are other elements that play an imperative role in the devastation that HIV/AIDS is causing in poor and minority communities according to the article “America’s Epidemic” by Gloria Browne Marshal.
During the last three decades, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus have taken the lives of many women and men in Africa, as well as infecting their unborn children. Is there enough being done to eradicate this disease in Africa, and will the cost of these treatments limit those who do not have the available income to afford these drugs? Scientist and researchers have worked over the years to find a cure or vaccine for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, but it remains the most incurable infection in the world. “There are several promising drug therapies now becoming available which are far too expensive for poor countries to afford” (Economist, Vol. 344, Issue 8036).
This fear will lead them to live life as it is and infect others with the virus by engaging in high-risk activities. Clearly, the battle against HIV/AIDS is far from being won for the reasons argued above, and until cure for HIV/AIDS is found, the battle is still far from being won. Conclusion In summation, this paper argued that the battle against HIV/AIDS globally is a complex issue which intertwines many development problems such as poverty and health. Although AR drugs could help HIV-positive individuals live a long and healthy life, issue of pricing, accessibility, intellectual property, discrimination and stigma prevents more than half of 35 million people with HIV from receiving proper care and help.
Lastly, this policy is recommended because it directly tackles the underlying issues of why mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS continues in Nigeria, which are the lack of health centers for pregnant women in rural locations and need for medical resources that the country cannot afford on its own. Overall, success of this policy will be measured based on how quickly these health centers can be built, whether the government can effectively cooperate with other organizations, and if there is decrease in the number of children infected with HIV through their mothers.
HIV and Aids in Sub Saharan Africa Introduction Sub Saharan Africa has a very serious HIV / AIDS epidemic with millions of its people living with the disease. It has now become a human tragedy in many areas of the world, but most affected is sub Saharan Africa. It is no coincidence that the countries suffering most with HIV / AIDS are also the poorest. HIV / AIDS is now considered to be the single most important impediment to social progress to many countries in Africa .This report will analyse the current situation using up to date sources from articles, books and the World Wide Web. UN Millennium development goals At the start of the new millennium, all 191 UN member states pledged to meet all the UN Millennium goals by the year 2015.
Sub-Saharan Africa has just over 10% of the world’s population, but is home to more than 60% of all people living with HIV—some 25.4 million . Africa’s AIDS challenge is a multifaceted problem which requires a unique, flexible, and multipronged approach. Education, prevention, and treatment are a necessary start but the United States must look deeper in order to effectively and properly help the communities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Current US policy under President George W. Bush is a massive change to previous policy. It commits 15 billion dollars of aid over a five year period.