At first,I will discuss the phonological features or the sound systems of American English.American English was influenced with features from the own varieties of the Scottish and Irish settlers who were already English speakers, for example, pronunciation of r after vowels ,while many British English speakers were losing the r after vowels. For example, most Canadians and Americans pronounce an r sound after the vowel in words like barn, car, card and farther, while speakers fro... ... middle of paper ... ...hat American English can be recognized as a variety of English distinct from British English, Australian English, and other national varieties in many of its and grammatical constructions. To conclude, American English is the variety of the English language spoken in the United States. American English has grown up with the country. Most people around the world who learn English as a second language learn either American English or British English.American English is taught more and more, however, because of the worldwide success of American business and technology.
The dialects of these languages cannot definitively be attributed to any particular group but have been narrowed down to that of; Northumbrian, Mercian, West Saxon, and Kentish. As Baugh and Cable tell us, ‘The English language of today is the language that has resulted from the history of the dialects spoken by the Germanic tribes who came to England...’ These new settlers brought with them everyday vocabulary, words that were for needed for daily survival in a foreign country with an unfamiliar language, words which we still use today in modern English, such as; weall(wall), wif(wife), cild(child) mete(meat), etan(eat), drincan(drink). There are debates as to what extent the vocabulary is Germanic. Baugh and Cable describe the vocabulary of Old English as predominantly Germanic , while, Helmut Gneuss argues that while the morphology and syntax was essentially of a Germanic language, the vocabulary was not . Written records in English do not go beyond the year 700AD, so we have relatively no way of assessing when a word came into Old English vocabulary prior to this time.
German, Dutch, Irish, Spanish, and the many other languages of immigrants settling in the United States fusing together created the development of a unique English dialect. Many of the languages features supported the phonological variations the US adopted during colonization. Most English speaker in the United States uses an alveolar or retroflex sound when pronouncing the
The History of English The most commonly spoken language in our day, would be English or as some people might call it “ The Lingua Franca “. It is a language, which is taken almost a thousand years to evolve, mainly through its borrowings from other languages such as French and Latin. It is actually classified as part of the Germanic group of languages. Even though it is the most commonly spoken language today, it is not without its faults, which would be its phonetic symbols only, representing one sound and each sound would have its appropriate symbol. Most European languages are very similar to those spoken in India and Persia, assuming that most of the European peoples are descendants of the original Aryans, speaking the common language called Indo-European.
2.1 Old English (449-1100) According to A. Campbell (1959:1), Old English also known as Anglo Saxon is ''the vernacular Germanic language of great Britain as it is recorded in manuscripts and inscriptions dating from before about 1100''. The Old English period was marked by such important historical events as occupation of Great Britain by Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians in 449;conversion to Christianity and introducing of writing; Scandinavian invasion in 787; reign of King Alfred in 871,who promoted the translation of Latin works into English, and composing of the Old English epic Beowulf in
Vocabulary Expansion Loanwords During late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, borrowing from Latin reached its summit in terms of absolute numbers of new words recorded in a prodigious dictionary such as Oxford English Dictionary (OED), but new borrowing had nothing like the long-term effect on the high-frequency or basic vocabularies of English that earlier ones had. A lot of the new loanwords are circumscribed in register, since the formal and technical registers of English that ripen in this period are largely categorized by their use of Latinate vocabulary. The emergence of the age of scientific discovery in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries formed the need for new words to describe brand-new knowledge (science, medical, mathematics etc…). Many words were borrowed from Latin. Some of the Latin words that borrowed are : apparatus,... ... middle of paper ... ...ed.
It is believed that the English language is derived from the Anglo-Frisian dialects from West Germanic tribes who were situated in North West Germany and the Netherlands when they invaded the Celtic ruled Britain. When the group Germanic tribes drove out the native Celts in Britain, they started to interact with one another. Since they speak similar languages, the language fused together overtime to create what we know now as the English language. English belongs to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. The English language is known as a borrowing language, which means that the words are borrowed from many other languages such as Latin, Greek and French without translating The English language is divided into three main periods; Old English, Middle English and Modern English.
Being a socio-cultural construct, language undergoes changes with change in society. This change works at two levels: at the level of words and at the level of syntax. Centuries of British rule over India resulted in changes in Punjabi language, adding new words into it which were borrowed from English. Words coming from diverse areas –such as military profession, products of industrialisation, register of law and administration and things of common usage- got included in Punjabi. Quite often these inclusions accompanied changes in word structure and stress shift.
The language’s earliest stage of development was known as Old English (OE) (3). The four main varieties of the language that were taken to Britain were: Kentish which was associated with the Jutes; West Saxon, from the Southern region, Wessex; Mercian, an Anglian dialect which was spoken in Mercia; and Northumbrian, one of the northernmost Anglian dialects (3). The “vocabulary expanded chiefly through compounding and derivation,” but there were also a few changes in meaning that contributed to this growth (3, p473). The first written form of the language was runic letters which was replaced by a modified version of the Roman alphabet during the Anglo-Saxon conversion to Christianity (3). Very little of OE cou... ... middle of paper ... ...atus of reasonable importance among the world (1).
The steam engine changed the meaning words like "train", "locomotive", and "tracks" so that they could fit with the new technology. There was a change in society too, “Cockney rhyming slang” appeared and became a new form of speech used by the lower class. Today English circles the globe, it inhabits the air we breath. What started as a guttural tribal dialect simile isolated in a small island is now the language of well over a thousand million people around the world. The story of the english language is an extraordinary one, tenacity, luck near extinction, dazzling flexibility and an extraordinary power to absolve.