It also decreases the amount of sludge, which needs to be disposed. Electrocoagulation is a technology that removes components from wastewater by applying a strong electric field that produces a series of oxidation and reduction reactions. By decomposing the electrodes, the metallic ions produced are subject to fast hydrolysis and the products of the hydrolysis neutralize the charge of the suspended particles driving them to a fast coagulation and sedimentation. Electrodes consist of iron and aluminium have special coagulation properties and are very efficient in decolouring industrial wastewater. In recent years, the EC has been successfully tested to decolourization of dye-containing solutions.
CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction[1.5] As the use of water is increasing day by day, there is growth in demand for new water treatment technologies as the world’s population increased and fresh water sources are polluted. Therefore its need to find out an alternative method to purify the waste water for recycled or reuse to fulfil the demand of the world. Electrocoagulation is one of the best process for purifying water and waste water from different resources. Waste water treatment technologies used in both municipal and industrial applications have to be further developed in order to reduce the pollution of receiving water bodies. In the last decade, this technology has been increasingly used in the United States and then after many countries started to use this
One of the best ways to get rids of waste is through chemical treatment process. Chemical treatment methods mostly use different properties of chemical to alter the characteristic of hazardous element into less hazardous elements. It is usually required an
A car or other types of vehicles is one of the important needs to human. In Malaysia, demands on petrol are increasing every year parallel with the development of the country which is caused by rising of various types of vehicles production which is also similar as other countries around the globe. Malaysian’s government provides higher subsidies year by year to ensure its citizens pay lower price for the petrol compared to other countries. Fuel subsidies bill i... ... middle of paper ... ... lead into energy as replace it by water which in turn will reduce total use of fuel in the future. iv.
An introduction and application of the cyclic voltammetry Introduction When consider about the electroanalytical methods in analytical chemistry, there have a wide variety ways to think of. For example, there has a lot of voltammetry that can be considered in application such as cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, staircase voltammetry. All these methods are widely used in several aspects of analytical ways in modern society. For example, by using the voltammetry can judge the electrode surface reaction process, the reversible or irreversible of the electrode reaction, the feature of the catalytic reaction of the cyclic voltammetry, and setting a condition for the organic synthesis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry is used the data of current and the potential to analysis.
Spray solutions consist of API and polymers dissolved in a solvent. This solution is atomized into droplets using a spray nozzle. There are an assortment of nozzles that can be used in this process including two-fluid, ultrasonic, rotary, and pressure nozzles. The advantage of using a pressure nozzle is that it allows for scalability and the tuning of droplet size. When droplets from the spray no... ... middle of paper ... ...ge of physicochemical properties of drugs such as HPMCAS, thus making the first screening step more efficient.
Natural or synthetic zeolites are microporous crystalline aluminosilicates,built up of 3-dimensional frame of [SiO4]4- and [AlO4]5-. Zeolites have unique ion exchange and sorption properties. They are widely used in wastewater treatment, construction, act as catalyst, gas separation and ion exchange in industry. Water treatment Zeolites are used in large number of water treatment such as water softening and purification from ammonia, heavy and radioactive metals. Besides that, zeolites are used as absorbents to remove of organic substances, microorganisms and anions, for seawater desalination membranes and fill materials for reactive permeable barriers.
The coagulation process is used for neutralization of charges and forming a viscous mass to bridge particles forms sufficiently large mass in the filter to settle. Coagulation is vital procedure in numerous wastewater treatment operations. A typical illus-tration is the expulsion of compound phosphorus and other is in the over-burden wastewater treatment plants, prompting the act of chemically enhancing primary treatment (CEPT) to di-minish suspended solids and natural masses from primary clarifiers. 3.1.1 Hardy-Schulze rule: The coagulation power of precipitated ion is more if its valency is high. For example, coagula-tion power series of Al3+, Na+ and Ba2+ is Al3+ > Ba2+ > Na+.
After few years of research the fins has introduce in heat exchangers for improve performance. The fins increase the effective area of a surface than heat transfer will increase. past few years lot of modification are implemented in fin design for increase heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger. The reason for
fective, cost efficient and environment-friendly process like, simple distillation and study the comparison of different methods present on this field . We aim to reduce the sludge , metals ,dirt and the other volatile matter present in the collected sample of used lubricating oil. 1.3 General Introduction. 1.3.1 Used Lubricating Oils. Lube Oil or Lubricating oil ,as we know, are the viscous liquid that is the most common resource used for lubrication or for reduction of wear and tear of industrial machineries and various engine in chemical, mechanical as well as automobile industry.