These principles include suggestions for dealing with their implications such as the use of multiple methods to convey information, providing explicit instruction in academic language, incorporating primary language supports, making expectations clear, and using testing accommodations when appropriate (2010). Characteristics of culturally responsive instruction include high expectations, positive relationships with families and communities, cultural sensitivity, active teaching methods, student control of portions of the lesson, and instruction around groups and pairs to create low anxiety (2010). A culturally responsive classroom creates an environment that is safe and accepting for children of all nationalities. An inclusive environment can include visuals that depict different cultures, inclusion of different cultures in the curriculum, access to bilingual dictionaries, sharing of family artifacts, field trips, and nonfiction picture books to teach key concepts in the content area. Knowing the principles of ELL instruction and characteristics of a successful ELL learning environment will not automatically create a competent ELL teacher. However, this knowledge will contribute to a better understanding of the factors that impact learning for ELL students and prepares the teacher to plan lessons that will result in maximum learning …show more content…
English language learners are at different levels of proficiency. Listening, reading, verbal, and writing skills of ELLs will require a variety of instructional levels to meet their varied needs. Understanding the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the learners, will enable the teacher to develop lesson plans that meet and challenge the skill levels of each student. Writing is one of the most productive activities for ELLs (Saville-Troike, 2012). Writing is a common method for testing knowledge and is used frequently for academic
Culturally responsive teaching is very important in today’s day and age. Classrooms are filled with students from different backgrounds, races, and ethnicities. Teachers need to put into consideration those differences when building curriculum and creating a classroom atmosphere. Subcultures might also need to be considered when teaching, such as the culture of the disabled. The culture of students with disabilities is one that may appear within many classrooms due to the increase of students with disabilities. Teachers who are able to maintain a culturally responsive classroom and curriculum will provide ideal learning opportunities for all students and encourage them to succeed. (Darrow, 2013)
This article, reporting on the research done by Margo Glew and Charlene Polio of Michigan State University, examines writing assessment in a different way than most research on the topic. The goal of this research was to look into how an ESL student chooses prompts for a writing exam when offered a choice. Polio and Glew not only investigate how they choose, but how long it takes each student to choose and if they should even be given a choice at all.
What is more important to education? The content or the how the content is taught? Many policy makers today believe that the former is far more crucial to the development of our youth. With high-stakes testing and an entire industry of textbooks and test making, the current system places empirical results over all else. Unfortunately, this approach only helps with the lower levels on the depths of knowledge (DOK) and Bloom’s Taxonomy charts. It only helps with basic recall of facts and knowledge. A second area of concern with this type of teaching is that only instills one point of view in the pupils. This is also problematic for diverse classrooms with students from various backgrounds. Would an approach that reinforces critical thinking and higher levels of DOK be more appropriate? A technique that incorporates the diversity of the classroom and life experiences of those students can be explained by Christopher Emdin and Django Paris who are two advocates of Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy or Reality Pedagogy.
To obtain a complete understanding of the word knowledge of students who are learning English, it is important their reading abilities (WTW, 2012). There are many ways to assess the reading abilities for ELL’s. For example, spelling inventories help explore the literacy knowledge of an ELL; however, the test should be first administered in their primary or first language. According to Words their way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling instruction, “a spelling inventory in students’ spoken language can indicate their literacy levels in the primary language, and more specifically, show which orthographic features they already understand” (WTW, 2014). Bilingual learners rely on knowledge of their primary language to spell words in a second language (WTW, 2014). Teachers can also assess ELL’s reading comprehension through sequencing activity (Ada, 1990). For example, teachers can have ELL’s write individual sentences from the text on separate sheets of drawing paper; then read or have the students read each sentence and illustrate it (Ada, 1990). Teachers can also informally test students’ ability to sequence material from a story by printing sentences from a section of the story on paper strips, mix the strips; have students put them in order (Ada, 1990). According to Spanish-Language Children’s Literature in the Classroom, teachers should “read to newcomers every day” (Ada, 1990). Appropriate reading material for beginning English Language Learners (ELL) should include numerous illustrations that help clarify the text, story plots that are action-based, little text on each page, text that contains repetitive, predictable phrases, high-frequency vocabulary and useful words, text that employs simple sentence structures (Ada, 1990). When you read to beginning ESL students, be sure to make language comprehensible to them (Ada,
The cultural and linguistic student is a resource of knowledge and information many educators do not utilize. Understanding the student’s culture, beliefs, and experiences is important when structuring lessons, which assist in the success of the language learner. The classroom teacher accomplishes this through reflective action as teaching methods and strategies are revisited and evaluated to match the ELL student’s capabilities. The ELL student is not only intelligent, but he or she has many interesting things to teach us explained Berg (2014). Dr. Strickland asserted a child’s diverse language does not relate to competence (Laureate Education, Inc. 2014s). As diversity is the new norm, the educational setting must be prepared to be as well.
As an educator one must understand that the children you will be teaching will all come from different backgrounds, different ethnicities, different homes with different values. No one student will be the same, and no one student will learn the same. The role of a modern educator is to harness this idea of diversity and channel it into a positive learning atmosphere for children of all backgrounds. “I define culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them” (Gay, 2013, p.50.). The hope for all teachers is to capture the minds of their children, as educators we must learn how our students learn, adapt to their skill set and channel our curriculum to their strength.
To be brief, culturally relevant teaching "is a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Ladson-Billings, 2009, pp. 20)." The emphasis of culturally relevant teaching is to understand that children have different needs and in order to deal with them in the best way possible is equitably. The inability to recognize these differences causes teachers to limit their ability to meet the student's educational needs and prevents them from being culturally relevant (Ladson-Billings, 2009, pp.37). Contrary to culturally relevant teaching, assimilationist teaching is a style that disregards a student's particular cultural characteristics. This teaching method follows a hierarchical model. According to the assimilationist perspective, the teacher's role is to ensure that students fit into society (Ladson-Billings, 2009, pp. 24). The book is full of amazing teaching strategies, teaching styles, and methods that would help benefit educators working with children of any grade
There are several key ideas that are crucial to understanding the best way to teach young, ELL students. The first idea is the importance of recognizing ELL’s feelings of isolation and alienation. When a teacher recognizes this, they are more capable of helping the student feel a part of the class. The student will struggle to participate if they do not feel like they belong with the other students. There is not only a language barrier, but also sociocultural differences that prohibit them from feeling accepted. Tiffany emphasizes the importance of acknowledging this problem and being aware during classroom activities. She suggests that you get a deep understanding of their cultural background, not just a “touristy” one.
In an online article Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, & Practice, by G. Gray, culturally responsive teaching is Validating- using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for the students. Culturally Responsive Teaching is Comprehensive- develop intellectual, social, emotional, and political learning. Culturally Responsive Teaching is Multidimensional- curricu...
Specifically, those teachers who are culturally competent value diversity in the classroom, but not limited to acknowledging and being knowledgeable of the student’s culture, background, and behavior. This, along with prior life experience, makes learning more appropriate and effective for the student body. As teachers, we can demonstrate culturally responsive teaching by communicating our expectations to all, developing a culturally responsive lessons, and student-centered instruction (NEA,
To start with, culturally responsive teaching practices recognize the validity of the cultural custom contained by several ethnic groups. In other words, it considers whether different approaches of learning are necessary and worthy in the formal learning. Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching practices are fundamental because they create links between school experience and home and between lived social cultural realities and academic abstraction (Gay, 2000).
In a society that is as culturally diverse as the United States of America, health care professionals must understand the meaning of culture and the differences between cultural sensitivity and cultural competence. Merriam-Websters online dictionary defines culture as the beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time. Blais and Hayes (2011) defines cultural sensitivity as “the respect and appreciation for cultural behaviors based on an understanding of the other person 's perspective” (p.383). Betancourt, J., Green, A. & Carrillo, E. (2002) stated, “cultural competence in health care describes the ability of systems to provide care to patients with diverse values, beliefs and behaviors, including tailoring delivery
The thing about multicultural education that surprised me the most was how much opposition there is to multicultural education. I would think, by now, people would be able to see how unbalanced the current educational curriculum is and welcome the inclusion of aspects from other cultures. I have read arguments ranging from, multicultural education is inherently racist to multicultural education promotes Islam and is indoctrinating our youth with terrorist ideas. Like most hot button issues in this country, people in positions of power will use everything possible, including fear-mongering, to further their agenda.
Culture is a powerful influence plays a big role in our interactions. Culture may also impact parenting style and a developing child. Having a strong sense of their own cultural history and the traditions associated with it helps children build a positive cultural identity for themselves. This also supports children’s sense of belonging and, by extension, their mental health and wellbeing. This class is crucial in understanding and working well parents, staff, and children. An effective educator understands how students’ cultures affect their perceptions, self-esteem, values, classroom behavior, and learning. As director, I need to use that understanding to help my students and staff feel welcomed, affirmed, respected, and valued. One way that I can do this is by using multicultural literature, especially children’s literature, to honor students’ culture and foster cross-cultural understanding. If cultural differences are not understood by teachers and management, it can lead to miscommunication and misunderstandings on both sides. It will be my job to do all I can to overcome both language and cultural differences to ensure a positive learning environment for
When choosing learning resources teachers need to ensure that all students feel valued, and supported regardless of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It is also important that materials chosen will help all students succeed in school regardless of their abilities, backgrounds, cultures, or linguistic differences. By understanding and respecting the various cultures and languages that are found in the classroom today educators will choose educational resources that will encourage and support student achievement.